# What is the measurement of one egg white?

The measurement of one large egg white is approximately 1 ounce or 30 grams. This can vary slightly depending on the size of the egg. On average, one large egg white contains around 15-20 calories and 4 grams of protein. Egg whites are a popular ingredient in cooking and baking due to their ability to create loft and foam. They can be used to make meringues, mousses, souffles and more. Egg whites are almost pure protein and contain no fat or cholesterol.

## Measuring Egg Whites

There are a few ways to measure out egg whites:

### By weight

Using a food scale, you can weigh egg whites directly. One large egg white weighs around 30 grams or 1 ounce.

### By volume

If you don’t have a scale, you can estimate using volume measurements:

• 1 large egg white = around 2 tablespoons (30 ml)
• 3 large egg whites = 1/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons (90 ml)
• 4 large egg whites = 1/3 cup (80 ml)
• 5 large egg whites = 1/4 cup plus 1 tablespoon (85 ml)
• 6 large egg whites = 1/2 cup (120 ml)
• 8 large egg whites = 2/3 cup (160 ml)
• 10 large egg whites = 3/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons (210 ml)
• 12 large egg whites = 1 cup (240 ml)

These volume measurements are based on an average large egg white being around 2 tablespoons (30 ml). Keep in mind that the size of eggs can vary, so these are approximations. For baking recipes where egg whites are a key leavening agent, weighing is recommended for best accuracy.

### By egg

As a general rule of thumb, you can expect around 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of egg white per large egg. So if a recipe calls for the whites of 2 eggs, expect to get around 1/4 cup (60 ml) of egg whites. Again, the exact amount will depend on the size of your eggs.

## Egg White Nutrition Facts

Egg whites are low in calories but high in protein. Here are the nutrition facts for a large egg white (33g):

• Calories: 17
• Protein: 4g
• Fat: 0g
• Cholesterol: 0mg
• Carbohydrates: 0.2g
• Sodium: 55mg

Egg whites contain no fat or cholesterol and almost no carbohydrates. Nearly all of the calories come from protein.

The protein in egg whites contains all nine essential amino acids that we need to obtain from food. Egg whites are considered a high quality, complete protein.

## Uses for Egg Whites

Egg whites have many uses in cooking and baking:

### Meringues

Whipped egg whites are the key ingredient in sweet or savory meringues. When whipped with sugar, egg whites take on a light, fluffy texture. Meringues are used to make desserts like angel food cake, pavlova, and lemon meringue pie.

### Mousses

Egg whites can be folded into chocolate, fruit purees and more to create airy mousses and chiffon-style desserts. The foam stabilize the mousse texture.

### Souffles

Savory or sweet souffles get their signature puffy rise from stiffly beaten egg whites. The egg white foam lightens and helps leaven the souffle as it bakes.

### Omelets and Scrambled Eggs

While less common, you can make fluffy omelets or scrambled eggs using just the egg whites. This reduces the fat and calories while still providing protein.

### Cocktails and Foams

Bartenders sometimes use egg whites to create foamy cocktail tops or stabilize emulsified drinks. The protein in the egg white helps create foam.

Beaten egg whites can be used as a coating for breading chicken, fish filets, and other proteins before pan frying. The egg white helps adhere the breadcrumbs to the surface.

### Marshmallows

Homemade marshmallows are made by whipping sugar into egg whites over heat. The egg foam provides the fluffy structure.

### Macarons

French macarons, the delicate almond cookies, are made with beaten egg whites in the batter. They provide lift and the signature “foot” on the bottom.

### Finishing Sauces

In professional kitchens, egg whites may be whipped into hot sauces at the last minute to add lightness and body. This technique is used in delicate savory sauces.

### Clarifying Broths and Consommes

Simmering egg whites in a cloudy broth causes the proteins to coagulate and rise to the surface, carrying impurities with them. This clarifies and refines the resulting consommé.

## Egg White Foams

Beaten egg whites are able to form foams because of the proteins they contain. There are two main proteins in egg whites:

### Ovalbumin

This makes up 54% of the protein in egg whites. It is able to unfold, or denature, when beaten or whipped. The unfolded proteins then form new bonds with each other, trapping air bubbles and creating a stable foam.

### Ovotransferrin

This makes up around 12% of egg white protein. It also denatures and contributes to foam stability.

### Creating Stable Foams

To create the most stable egg white foams:

– Egg whites should be at room temperature before whipping. Cold egg whites will not whip up as easily.

– Use a clean metal or glass bowl with no traces of fat, which would inhibit foaming. Plastic bowls can harbor fat.

– Whip the egg whites with a whisk or hand mixer until soft peaks form. Do not overbeat until stiff and dry.

– Acid, such as cream of tartar or lemon juice, helps stabilize the foam by increasing the positive charges on the protein molecules so they repel each other.

– Sugar also helps stabilize foams by pulling moisture out of the egg proteins. This causes the proteins to unwind more extensively.

### Foam Defects

There are a few things that can cause egg white foams to deflate or result in poor quality:

– Fat or oil – Even small amounts will inhibit foaming. Use clean, grease-free bowls and utensils.

– Old eggs – The whites thin out and become less able to form foams over time. Use fresh eggs.

– Overbeating – This causes the proteins to bond too tightly, forcing out moisture and reducing volume. Stop when soft peaks form.

– Underbeating – The foam will not be able to support itself if the egg whites are not whipped sufficiently.

– Warm temperatures – Heat causes foams to break down faster. Make meringues and mousses in a cool kitchen.

## Egg White Substitutes

Those avoiding eggs or egg whites can use the following substitutes:

### Aquafaba

The liquid from a can of chickpeas or other beans can mimic egg whites. Drain and whisk it to form foams. 2 tablespoons aquafaba substitutes for 1 egg white.

### Tofu

Blended silken tofu can provide binding and foam similar to egg whites. Use around 1/4 cup blended tofu per egg white.

### Flax eggs

A “flax egg” made by mixing 1 tablespoon ground flax seed with 3 tablespoons water per egg white provides binding. It won’t provide the same foaming action though.

### Fruit purees

Pureed bananas, applesauce and other fruits can provide moisture and binding in baked goods. Use around 1/4 cup puree per egg white.

### Commercial egg white replacers

Powdered commercial products made with starches or gums create binding and add lift in cooking and baking. Use as directed on the package.

### Whipped cream

Lightly sweetened whipped cream can provide a light texture similar to stabilized egg white foam in some desserts, though it is not as sturdy.

## Egg White Storage

Raw egg whites can be stored:

– In their shells in the carton in the refrigerator for 4-5 weeks beyond the pack date or about 3 weeks after purchase.

– In a sealed airtight container in the refrigerator for 2-4 days.

– Frozen for up to 1 year. Freeze each white individually in an ice cube tray, then transfer to a freezer bag.

– Dried egg white powder can be stored at room temperature for up to 2 years once opened if kept in an airtight container.

Cooked egg whites should be used immediately or refrigerated and used within 2-3 days. Reheating cooked egg whites is not recommended as they quickly become rubbery.

## Pasteurized Egg Whites

Pasteurized egg whites go through a heat treatment process to kill any potential salmonella bacteria present. This makes them safer to consume raw or undercooked.

Pasteurized egg whites are available in:

– Cartons of liquid egg whites – These can be used just like fresh egg whites.

– Frozen egg white pucks – Thaw overnight in the fridge before using.

– Dried egg white powder – Reconstitute with water before using.

– Some grocery stores now carry pasteurized eggs with the whites intact inside the shell. Read labels to confirm.

Pasteurized egg whites will perform just like regular egg whites in recipes. The heating process does not significantly impact their whipping and foaming properties.

## Egg White Allergies

Some people are allergic to the proteins found in egg whites. The major allergens are:

– Ovalbumin – This makes up over half of the protein content.

– Ovomucoid – This protein inhibits certain enzymes.

– Lysozyme – This protein attacks bacteria cell walls.

– Ovomucin – This provides thickening and gelling properties.

Allergic reactions can range from mild skin irritation and digestive troubles to severe, life-threatening anaphylaxis.

Those with an egg allergy must avoid all products containing egg or egg whites. Some medications and vaccines are also formulated using egg whites, so it is important to read labels carefully and discuss options with a doctor. Desensitization therapy may be an option to overcome certain egg allergies over time.

## Egg White Contamination Risks

Raw egg whites may contain salmonella bacteria. Symptoms of salmonella poisoning include nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps.

To reduce risks:

– Purchase pasteurized egg whites or pasteurized in-shell eggs when consuming raw or undercooked egg whites.

– Use extra caution around infants, pregnant women, the elderly and those with weakened immune systems as they are more susceptible to infection.

– Avoid any contact between raw egg whites and foods that will not undergo further cooking.

– Wash hands, utensils, equipment and work surfaces after contact with raw whites.

Cooking egg whites until firm reduces risks as heat kills salmonella bacteria. Consuming completely cooked egg whites poses very low risks.

## Egg White Nutrient Absorption

The proteins in cooked egg whites are still highly bioavailable and absorbable by the body. Studies show protein utilization from cooked egg whites ranges from 91-94%.

Some vitamins and antioxidants in egg whites are heat sensitive and may become somewhat depleted from cooking. However, egg whites are not a significant source of most vitamins and minerals. Rather, their nutritional value stems mainly from their high quality protein content.

Overall, the nutritional benefits of egg whites remain largely intact whether they are consumed raw or cooked. Pasteurization reduces potential risks without compromising nutrition. For most individuals, moderate consumption of cooked egg whites poses few health risks while providing beneficial nutrition.

As with any food, those with existing medical conditions or food sensitivities should discuss incorporating egg whites into their diet with a healthcare professional first. Through proper handling and preparation, egg whites can be an excellent addition to a healthy routine for most.

## History of Egg Whites

Chicken egg whites have been an important ingredient around the world for centuries. Some key points in their historical use include:

– Ancient Persians are said to have made the first early meringues and souffles using beaten egg whites.

– Medieval cooks used egg whites to clarify stocks and wines.

– Egg white foams became fashionable in 14th century France and Italy as dishes for aristocracy.

– Beating egg whites in copper bowls was practiced in the 18th century for increased stability.

– French nuns in the convents perfected macaron recipes with egg whites in the 1700s.

– Pasteurization was developed in the 1920s to reduce bacteria in egg whites and improve safety.

– Powered egg whites first appeared in the 1930s, allowing easier storage and transport.

– Egg white omelets and protein shakes gained popularity in the 1980s as high protein diets trended.

While our understanding of food science has improved, the basic concept of whipping egg whites into light foams has changed little over hundreds of years of cooking. Egg whites remain popular today in both sweet and savory dishes across the world.

## Egg White Misconceptions

There are some common misconceptions surrounding egg whites:

– Myth: Egg whites are fattening.

Fact: Egg whites contain zero fat and little calories.

– Myth: Raw egg whites are safe to eat.

Fact: Raw whites may contain harmful salmonella bacteria. Pasteurized eggs are safer.

– Myth: Egg allergies come from the whites, not the yolks.

Fact: Proteins in egg whites and yolks can both cause allergic reactions.

– Myth: Egg whites are a complete protein source.

Fact: While egg whites do contain all the essential amino acids, the amounts of some are too low for them to be a complete protein. Eating egg yolks provides the missing amino acids for a complete, high quality protein.

– Myth: Cooked egg whites lose all their protein value.

Fact: Cooked egg whites retain 91-94% of their protein bioavailability.

## Egg White Experiments

Egg whites can be used to demonstrate several scientific principles:

### Protein Denaturation

Raw egg whites are thin and drippy while cooked egg whites become thickened and opaque. This demonstrates how heat denatures proteins, causing them to unfold and bond together.

### Enzyme Activity

The enzyme lysozyme present in egg whites attacks bacterial cell walls. Adding a raw egg white to a bacterial culture will create a zone of inhibition where bacteria cannot grow, illustrating enzymatic actions.

### Foam Stability

Whipping different egg white samples with varying acidity, copper contact, age, and fat content shows how these factors affect the stability and volume of whipped egg white foams.

### Protein Coagulation

Heating egg whites causes the proteins to coagulate and become solid. This irreversible protein denaturation is easy to observe by cooking egg whites in a pan.

### Osmosis

Osmosis can be demonstrated by soaking raw egg whites in varying salt solutions. Water will leave the egg whites and they will become rubbery when soaked in high salt concentrations due to osmosis across the semipermeable plasma membranes.

### Biomolecular Foams

The ability of egg whites to form foams with the addition of air bubbles can be used to study how biological compounds can stabilize foams, a model for a type of soft condensed matter.

Egg whites provide an inexpensive, safe and easily obtainable biological material to investigate many different scientific concepts through simple experiments. This makes them a useful teaching tool.

## Conclusion

Egg whites provide many culinary functions thanks to their ability to form foams. Beating denatures the egg white proteins so they unwind and reconnect to trap air, creating volume and light textures. The average large egg white weighs around 30 grams and provides about 4 grams of protein with little fat, carbs or calories.

While raw egg whites may harbor salmonella, pasteurized eggs provide a safe way to enjoy them undercooked or in drinks if desired. Cooked egg whites retain excellent nutritional quality. With a long history and roles in many classic recipes, egg whites continue to be a versatile ingredient in cooking and baking.