# What is the cc of mg?

Mg stands for magnesium, which is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. The cc stands for cubic centimeter, which is a metric unit of volume equal to 1 milliliter or 1 cm3. So the question “What is the cc of mg?” is asking about the volume occupied by a certain amount of magnesium.

To answer this, we first need to understand some basic properties of magnesium. Magnesium is a shiny gray solid metal that is lightweight yet strong. It is malleable and ductile, meaning it can be pounded into thin sheets and drawn into wires. Magnesium has a density of 1.738 g/cm3 at 20°C. The density tells us how much mass is contained in a certain volume. For magnesium, each cubic centimeter (or 1 mL) contains 1.738 grams of the metal.

## Calculating Volume and Density

The density of a substance is defined as:

Density = Mass / Volume

Where:
– Density is measured in g/cm3
– Mass is measured in grams (g)
– Volume is measured in cubic centimeters (cm3) or milliliters (mL)

Rearranging this formula to solve for volume gives:

Volume = Mass / Density

So if we know the mass of magnesium and its density, we can calculate the volume in cc that this amount of magnesium would occupy.

Let’s do an example calculation. Say we have a 300 gram sample of magnesium. To find out the volume in cc, we would plug the known values into the formula:

Volume = Mass / Density
Volume = 300 g / 1.738 g/cm3
Volume = 172.67 cc

Therefore, 300 grams of magnesium would occupy a volume of 172.67 cubic centimeters.

To summarize, if you know the mass of magnesium, you can use its density to calculate the volume in cc via the formula:

cc of Mg = Mass (g) / Density (1.738 g/cm3)

## Atomic Structure of Magnesium

To better understand the properties and density of magnesium, it helps to look at its atomic structure. Magnesium has an atomic number of 12, meaning it has 12 protons in its nucleus. It has 12 electrons configured in a Ne-like electron configuration with 2 electrons in the outer shell.

Magnesium has three naturally occurring stable isotopes:

– Mg-24 – Abundance 78.99%
– Mg-25 – Abundance 10%
– Mg-26 – Abundance 11.01%

The relative atomic mass of magnesium is 24.305 u. Although magnesium is considered a lightweight metal, each atom still has a mass of over 24 atomic mass units.

When magnesium atoms bond together to form the solid metal, their crystalline structure gives magnesium certain characteristics. Magnesium has a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) crystal structure which contributes to the density and strength of the metal. The structure maximizes the packing density of the atoms.

So in summary, magnesium’s atomic properties such as its atomic mass and crystal structure determine characteristics like its density, which allows us to calculate volume from a known mass.

## Magnesium in the Periodic Table

Magnesium’s position in the periodic table also gives insight into its properties and reactivity. Magnesium is located in group 2 and period 3 of the periodic table. Elements in group 2 are known as the alkaline earth metals. They all have similar chemical and physical properties.

Some key facts about magnesium within the periodic table:

– Alkaline earth metal in group 2
– Period 3 element
– Atomic number 12
– Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2
– Electropositive metal with low electronegativity
– Forms ionic compounds by losing 2 electrons to form Mg2+

Magnesium’s location to the left of the transition metals and in period 3 means it is a reactive metal that forms ionic bonds, but is still classified as a base metal.

Compared to other alkaline earth metals, magnesium has relatively low density and melting point because of its smaller atomic radius. But it is still denser and stronger than lightweight metals like aluminum.

Understanding magnesium’s position in the periodic table helps explain its properties and why it has the density and reactivity that it does.

## Magnesium Abundance and Production

Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, making up about 2% by mass. It is also highly abundant in seawater, which makes the ocean a vast reservoir of the element.

Magnesium can be isolated through electrolysis from molten magnesium chloride derived from seawater or brine. Magnesium can also be extracted from minerals like dolomite and magnesite. The main producers of magnesium are China, Russia, Israel, and the United States.

In its pure form, magnesium has high chemical reactivity so it does not occur naturally in this elemental state. But its presence in compounds means it is readily available for industrial production through electrolytic processes. Once isolated, magnesium can be processed into many useful forms and alloys for commercial and industrial applications.

### Magnesium Resources

The most common mineral sources of magnesium are:

– Dolomite – CaMg(CO3)2
– Magnesite – MgCO3
– Carnallite – KCl·MgCl2·6H2O
– Epsomite – MgSO4·7H2O
– Kieserite – MgSO4·H2O

Seawater contains about 0.13% magnesium by weight. The vast oceans provide a nearly inexhaustible reserve of magnesium that can be processed by evaporative recovery and electrolysis.

Magnesium is also dissolved in many salt lakes and brines which provide concentrated sources for magnesium production. Great Salt Lake in Utah has high magnesium concentrations for example.

### Magnesium Production

Magnesium metal is produced industrially by three main processes:

1. Pidgeon process – Involves reducing magnesium oxide with silicon at high temperatures to produce magnesium vapor which is then condensed.

2. Electrolysis of molten chloride salts – Most common process where molten MgCl2 derived from seawater, brines or magnesite ore is electrolyzed in steel cells at high temperature. The cathode collects pure liquid magnesium metal.

3. Electrolysis of fused magnesium oxide – MgO is electrolyzed in a similar process but without using chloride salts.

China leads global magnesium production at over 85% of the world output. Magnesium smelting is energy intensive so China’s coal resources give it an economic advantage.

## Properties of Magnesium Metal

Now that we have covered magnesium’s abundance, production and sources, we can discuss in more detail the properties that give magnesium its usefulness.

Some key properties of magnesium metal are:

– Light silvery-white appearance
– Atomic number 12
– Atomic weight 24.305 u
– Density 1.738 g/cm3 at 20°C
– Melting point of 648.8°C
– Highly reactive, especially at elevated temperatures
– Forms passivating oxide layer on exposure to air
– Crystalline structure is hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
– Relatively soft and malleable metal
– Tensile strength of about 90 to 205 MPa
– Excellent machinability and damping capacity

Magnesium has one of the lowest densities of all structural metals. Yet it still maintains sufficient strength for many applications due to the intermetallic bonding resulting from its crystalline structure.

Magnesium has high thermal and electrical conductivities and is non-toxic. It can be alloyed with other metals like aluminum, zinc, and manganese to create lightweight alloys for structures and machinery.

However, magnesium metal does have some downsides. It has poor corrosion resistance compared to other structural metals. Also, magnesium ignites easily in air and burns intensely once ignited. So precautions are needed in handling and storage.

### Physical Properties

| Property | Value |
| —————– | —————————— |
| Density (at 20°C) | 1.738 g/cm3 |
| Melting Point | 648.8°C |
| Boiling Point | 1091°C |
| Atomic Weight | 24.305 u |
| Atomic Number | 12 |
| Atomic Radius | 160 pm |

### Mechanical Properties

| Property | Value |
| ————————- | ——— |
| Tensile Strength | 90-205 MPa|
| Modulus of Elasticity | 45 GPa |
| Shear Modulus | 17 GPa |
| Poisson’s Ratio | 0.29 |
| Machinability Rating | 55% |
| Thermal Conductivity | 156 W/mK |
| Electrical Resistivity | 43 nΩ·m |

## Uses of Magnesium

Magnesium has many uses across a wide range of industries due to its unique combination of low density and high strength. Some of the main applications of magnesium include:

– **Structural metal** – Used in the aerospace, automotive, and transportation industries to reduce weight in vehicles and aircraft. Magnesium alloys with aluminum, zinc, manganese and other metals are lightweight alternatives to steel and allow for fuel efficiency.

– **Alloy additive** – Small amounts of magnesium are added to aluminium and copper alloys to improve strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance.

– **Casting alloy** – Magnesium takes less energy to melt than other metals so it is widely used in casting and molding. Die cast magnesium parts are common in electronics, power tools, cameras, and appliances.

– **Cathodic protection** – Magnesium sacrificial anodes are used to prevent corrosion in underground pipes, storage tanks, marine applications, and more. The magnesium metal corrodes preferentially to protect the other metal.

– **Desulfurization agent** – Magnesium is added to iron and steel production to remove sulfur impurities from the metal. The sulfur forms magnesium sulfide instead of iron sulfide.

– **Reducing agent** – Magnesium is a strong reducing agent and can pull oxygen from metal oxides to produce pure metals. It is sometimes used to extract uranium and other metals from their oxides.

– **Fire starter** – Ribbon magnesium or shavings are used to quickly and easily ignite fires for camping, military, or emergency uses.

– **Flash photography** – Magnesium powder burned with oxygen provides an intense light source for photography before electronic flashes.

– **Nutrient** – Magnesium is an essential mineral nutrient in both plants and animals. It serves important biological functions and is added to fertilizers and nutritional supplements.

## Chemical Properties of Magnesium

Magnesium has several notable chemical properties that determine its reactivity and how it behaves:

– Alkaline earth metal – Magnesium readily forms ionic bonds by losing its two outer valence electrons to form a cation with a +2 charge. This makes it very reactive with nonmetals.

– Electronegativity – Magnesium has an electronegativity of 1.31 on the Pauling scale. It readily gives up electrons to more electronegative elements.

– Reactivity – Magnesium is a highly reactive metal, especially at elevated temperatures or when finely divided. It reacts with acids, oxidizing agents, and halogens.

– Passivating layer – The reactivity is tempered by magnesium’s ability to form a tough oxide layer on exposure to air, slowing down further corrosion.

– Reducing properties – Magnesium is a good reducing agent, capable of reducing many metal oxides to pure metals.

– Solubility – Magnesium and its compounds exhibit good solubility in water and polar organic solvents.

So in summary, magnesium is known for its reactive nature which allows it to form many useful compounds as well as alloys with other metals. But it also exhibits some passivity due to its oxidized surface.

### Chemical Reactions

Here are some examples of magnesium’s chemical reactions:

– Reaction with halogens:

Mg + Cl2 → MgCl2

Mg + 2Br2 → MgBr2

– Reaction with acids:

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2

Mg + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2

– Reaction with water:

Mg + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2 + H2

– Reaction with oxygen:

2Mg + O2 → MgO

– Reaction as a reducing agent:

Mg + CuO → MgO + Cu

## Precautions with Magnesium

Despite its many useful properties, there are some safety precautions to keep in mind when handling magnesium:

– **Flammability** – Magnesium ribbon, powder or shavings can ignite easily in air. Fires are intense and difficult to extinguish. Use care when machining or working with magnesium.

– **Reactivity** – Magnesium should be stored away from mineral acids, oxidizers, halogens, and other incompatible materials. It tarnishes in moist air and corrodes in water.

– **Toxic fumes** – Magnesium fires or reactions give off toxic and irritating white fumes of magnesium oxide. Use proper ventilation and breathing protection.

– **Explosion hazard** – Finely divided magnesium powder is an explosion hazard. Avoid accumulations of dust and prevent sources of ignition.

– **Skin burns** – Molten magnesium causes severe burns. Wear protective clothing and eye protection if handling molten metal.

So while extremely useful, magnesium does require safe handling procedures. Workers should be properly trained on the fire and reactivity hazards. With prudent precautions taken, magnesium can be used quite safely across many beneficial applications.

## Conclusion

In summary, the cubic centimeters (cc) occupied by magnesium metal can be calculated from its mass by using the density of magnesium, which is 1.738 g/cm3. The volume in cc is equal to the mass in grams divided by the density. Magnesium is an abundant alkaline earth metal with unique properties like low density coupled with high strength, making it useful across many industries when weight savings are important. Precautions have to be taken with magnesium due to its flammability and reactivity hazards in certain forms like powders or ribbons. But the metal can be safely used and handled given proper training on its risks. With an understanding of its properties and how to calculate its density, one can determine the cc of magnesium for any given mass.