Pepto Bismol is a popular over-the-counter medication used to treat upset stomach, heartburn, indigestion, and diarrhea. It contains the active ingredient bismuth subsalicylate. Pepto Bismol is readily available in most medicine cabinets and many people have a bottle on hand in case gastrointestinal issues pop up. But like all medications, Pepto Bismol does come with an expiration date printed on the bottle. This leads many people to wonder, does Pepto Bismol really expire? Will it become unsafe or less effective after the printed expiration date? Or is the expiration date just there for legal and procedural reasons?
What is an expiration date?
The expiration date printed on medication bottles, including Pepto Bismol, indicates the date up until which the manufacturer guarantees the drug’s potency and safety. The expiration date is determined through stability testing. This testing provides an idea of how long the medication’s ingredients will remain at full strength when stored properly.
After the printed expiration date has passed, the medication may not have the desired therapeutic effect. The ingredients can start to break down over time. For drugs like Pepto Bismol that are meant to help treat gastrointestinal distress, a loss of potency could render it essentially useless for stopping diarrhea or calming an upset stomach.
The expiration date does not indicate a point at which the medication suddenly becomes toxic or hazardous if used. However, there are definite risks associated with taking expired medications, especially those that are more than a year past their expiration date.
Does Pepto Bismol expire?
The short answer is yes, Pepto Bismol does expire. The expiration date printed on the bottle indicates the date after which the manufacturer no longer guarantees the product will be at full potency.
Pepto Bismol contains bismuth subsalicylate as its active ingredient. This provides the medication’s anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties. However, bismuth subsalicylate can degrade over time, especially when stored in hot, humid environments. Higher temperatures and moisture levels speed up the breakdown process.
Manufacturers conduct ongoing stability testing to determine how long bismuth subsalicylate remains stable and effective in Pepto Bismol. This allows them to confidently set expiration dates typically 2-3 years from the date of manufacture.
While Pepto Bismol does expire, some research shows the medication may retain some effectiveness for a short time past its printed expiration date, though potency can decrease steadily. But there is no way to know for sure just how much effectiveness remains or how quickly the active ingredient degrades once the expiration date has passed. Relying on expired Pepto carries definite risks.
Dangers of using expired Pepto Bismol
While an expired bottle of Pepto Bismol likely won’t cause life-threatening harm if used, it may fail to provide the expected relief of symptoms. Additional dangers include:
– Upset stomach, diarrhea get worse: With the active ingredient degraded, expired Pepto could fail to control diarrhea. Symptoms may worsen.
– Side effects increase: Degraded ingredients can cause side effects like constipation and black stools to become more likely when taking the medication.
– Toxicity risk from byproducts: Breakdown of bismuth subsalicylate produces byproducts like bismuth and salicylate, which at high enough levels can cause toxicity.
– Bacteria or mold: Bacteria or mold could grow in expired medicine, posing health risks if ingested. Discoloration or foul odor can indicate this type of contamination.
– False sense of security: Having expired medicine on hand provides a false sense of security since it may fail to provide relief precisely when needed.
Overall, it is not recommended to take Pepto Bismol or any other expired medication. While rare, there is some risk involved. The medication is less likely to provide its expected therapeutic benefits.
How long does Pepto Bismol remain effective after expiration?
There is limited research available on how long Pepto Bismol remains effective after its printed expiration date. One study tested Pepto Bismol up to 66 months past expiration and found the medication retained about 90% of its original bismuth subsalicylate concentration.
However, there is no way for consumers to test medication potency at home. Effectiveness likely decreases steadily once the expiration date has passed. Even in the best storage conditions, the medication almost certainly loses some potency within 1-2 years after expiration.
The safest approach is to discard any expired medicine, including Pepto Bismol. With so many unknowns about decreases in potency and additive breakdown after the printed expiration date, it is not worth any risks associated with taking expired Pepto Bismol.
Does Pepto Bismol need to be refrigerated?
Pepto Bismol does not need to be refrigerated. It should be stored at controlled room temperature away from excess heat and moisture. Refrigeration could actually decrease the product’s shelf life due to temperature fluctuations each time the bottle is removed from the fridge.
Tips for proper Pepto Bismol storage
To help Pepto Bismol remain effective for the length of its shelf life:
– Store at controlled room temperature between 68-77°F (20-25°C).
– Keep in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight and humidity.
– Do not refrigerate or freeze.
– Keep the bottle tightly closed to avoid contamination.
– Avoid extreme temperature fluctuations.
– Do not store in the medicine cabinet in bathrooms where heat and moisture are common.
– Adhere to the expiration date and do not use expired medicine.
Proper storage allows Pepto Bismol to retain its labeled potency through the full shelf life. Refrigeration is unnecessary and could shorten the medication’s effective lifespan. Discard any unused Pepto once the printed expiration date has passed.
Does expired Pepto Bismol become toxic?
Expired Pepto Bismol does not necessarily become overtly toxic or immediately dangerous to ingest. However, degradation of the active and inactive ingredients over time after the expiration date can increase the risk of side effects and toxicity if taken.
The active ingredient in Pepto Bismol is bismuth subsalicylate. As this additive breaks down, it can produce byproducts like bismuth and salicylate. At very high levels, these compounds can potentially cause bismuth toxicity and salicylate toxicity, both of which have serious symptoms.
Expired Pepto Bismol is also more likely to grow potentially dangerous bacteria and mold over time. This poses a health risk if the contaminated medicine is ingested.
So while an expired bottle of Pepto Bismol does not instantly turn into poison on its expiration date, its breakdown over time does increase the risk of side effects and toxicity if consumed. For this reason, as well as decreased potency, it should not be used and should be safely discarded instead.
Signs your Pepto Bismol may be expired
Watch for any of these signs that your bottle of Pepto Bismol may be expired:
– Passed printed expiration date
– Bottle seems puffed up or bulging
– Cap is loose, cracked, or damaged
– Medication is discolored – should be a pale pink
– Liquid appears cloudy rather than transparent
– Struggle to mix the liquid when shaking the bottle
– Medication has an odor – should be odorless
– Tablets are stuck together, cracked, or powdery
– You have had the bottle longer than 2-3 years
– Bottle has been improperly stored in heat/humidity
When in doubt, do not use Pepto Bismol that shows any of these concerning signs and may be expired. Check the expiration date on the label and discard if passed.
Can you test Pepto Bismol potency?
There is no straightforward way to test the potency and effectiveness of Pepto Bismol at home once the expiration date has passed.
Testing methods like high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can accurately measure concentrations of active ingredients like bismuth subsalicylate in medications. However, this specialized lab testing is not practical for individual consumers to perform at home.
Visual inspection of the medication in its bottle cannot reliably determine potency. The liquid may still look normal yet have decreasing bismuth subsalicylate levels.
The most reliable approach is to discard Pepto Bismol once its expiration date has passed. While inconvenient if a fresh bottle is not available, this avoids any uncertainties about the medication’s potency and effectiveness. Don’t take chances with expired medicine when treating gastrointestinal upset.
Is it bad to use Pepto Bismol after expiration?
Yes, it is generally not recommended to use Pepto Bismol after its printed expiration date has passed. The medication is likely to have decreasing potency and effectiveness. Expired Pepto also has higher risks of side effects, toxicity due to additive breakdown, and bacterial contamination.
Can expired Pepto Bismol make you sick?
Consuming expired Pepto Bismol is unlikely to immediately make you severely ill. However, it may fail to adequately treat diarrhea, nausea, and other gastrointestinal issues. Its declined potency provides a false sense of security. Bacterial growth and additive byproducts in expired Pepto also raise the risk of side effects and toxicity.
Does Pepto Bismol go bad?
Yes, Pepto Bismol can go bad and should not be used after its printed expiration date. The active ingredient, bismuth subsalicylate, degrades over time lowering potency. Byproducts that grow less stable also increase toxicity risks. Pepto Bismol lacks effectiveness and poses more risks when expired.
What happens if you take expired Pepto Bismol?
Taking expired Pepto Bismol may result in worsened diarrhea, nausea, and other symptoms since the medication loses potency. Side effects like constipation and black stools become more likely. It also increases risks related to toxicity, bacterial growth, and mold contamination. Overall, expired Pepto is unlikely to provide much relief and may make you feel worse.
Can old Pepto Bismol hurt you?
An old bottle of Pepto Bismol is unlikely to seriously harm or poison someone if used. However, the medication can definitely cause harm beyond just its decreased effectiveness. The additive breakdown increases risks of side effects and toxicity. Bacterial and mold growth pose health risks if ingested. Overall, old Pepto should not be consumed and should be discarded.
The bottom line
Always adhere to the expiration date printed on Pepto Bismol bottles. While the medication does not necessarily become toxic once expired, its potency and stability decrease over time. Old, expired Pepto can fail to treat gastrointestinal issues and may cause side effects or toxicity. Check your bottle for any signs it may be expired and immediately discard if it is past the printed expiration date. When in doubt, do not consume the Pepto Bismol. Expired medicine is simply not worth the risks.