Whether a patient needs to stay overnight for a biopsy procedure depends on several factors, including the type of biopsy, the location of the biopsy, and the individual circumstances of the patient. In most cases, biopsies are outpatient procedures and patients can go home the same day. However, sometimes an overnight stay is recommended or required.
Types of Biopsies
There are several different types of biopsies that may require different recovery times:
Fine Needle Aspiration
This type of biopsy uses a very thin needle to extract a small amount of fluid or cells from a tumor or lump. It is minimally invasive and painless. Patients can usually go home shortly after the procedure with minimal restrictions.
Core Needle Biopsy
A core needle biopsy uses a hollow needle slightly larger than a fine needle aspiration to extract a small cylinder of tissue. There may be some discomfort during the procedure. Patients are usually able to go home within a few hours.
For a surgical biopsy, the doctor numbs the area and makes an incision to remove all or part of the abnormal growth. This is more invasive than other biopsy methods and usually requires a few hours of recovery time. An overnight stay may be recommended.
Bone Marrow Biopsy
Bone marrow biopsies require inserting a needle into the hip bone to withdraw a sample of bone marrow. This can be painful, so sedation is often used. Patients may need to stay for observation for 4-6 hours after the procedure or overnight.
The location of the biopsy can also impact whether an overnight stay is required:
Brain biopsies carry more risks than other biopsies. Patients always require close monitoring afterward, usually involving an overnight hospital stay to watch for potential complications like bleeding or infection.
Lung biopsies also carry special risks like collapsed lung or bleeding. Doctors usually observe patients for several hours or overnight to monitor for complications.
Lymph Node Biopsy
Lymph node biopsies are low risk and patients can usually go home the same day. The exception is biopsies of lymph nodes deep inside the chest or abdomen, which may warrant overnight observation.
Skin biopsies are very minor procedures. Patients can leave within an hour or two and continue normal activities.
Reasons for Overnight Stay
Even for straightforward biopsies, some reasons a doctor may recommend an overnight stay include:
If sedation or anesthesia is used during the biopsy, the patient will need to remain for a few hours until the effects wear off. Doctors want to monitor the patient’s breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure during this time.
If the patient lives far away, the doctor may want them to stay overnight in case any complications arise or the effects of sedation linger. This way they are close to medical care.
Patients with certain medical conditions like lung disease, bleeding disorders, or heart disease have a higher risk of biopsy complications. An overnight stay allows for closer monitoring.
If the biopsy is of a lesion near a vital structure, the doctor may require overnight observation to ensure no complications compromise something important.
Abnormal Results of the Biopsy Procedure Itself
Very rarely a biopsy causes internal damage or bleeding. If this happens, an overnight stay allows the medical team to stabilize and monitor the patient.
When an Overnight Stay is Required
While most biopsies are outpatient, there are some situations where an overnight or longer hospitalization is usually required after the procedure:
Bone Marrow Biopsies
Most patients remain in the hospital overnight after bone marrow biopsies to manage pain and watch for bleeding.
Major muscle biopsies often warrant 1-2 days in the hospital for incision care, pain control, and monitoring.
Kidney biopsies involve risks like bleeding and loss of kidney function. At minimum, overnight observation is advised. Sometimes a 2-3 day hospital stay is needed.
Men usually stay 1-2 nights after prostate biopsies to monitor for side effects like bleeding, pain and infection.
Any Biopsy with Complications
If excessive bleeding, severe pain, or other complications happen, the patient will need to stay 1-2 nights for treatment.
Preparing for the Possibility of an Overnight Stay
Since it’s hard to predict prior if an overnight stay will be needed, it is wise for patients to prepare as if one might be required after a biopsy:
Arrange for someone to drive you home
Do not plan to drive yourself home. Have a family member or friend available to provide transportation.
Pack a small overnight bag
Bring toiletries, phone charger, insurance cards, pajamas or comfortable clothes, and any other essentials. Include any prescriptions and a list of current medications.
Make child or pet care arrangements
If you are responsible for young children or pets, have an alternate caregiver on standby in case you need to stay overnight unexpectedly.
Bring entertainment items
Pack books, magazines, portable electronic devices, and anything else you enjoy that can help pass time if an overnight stay becomes necessary.
Notify work/school you may be out
Plan for the possibility of missing work or school the next day in case an overnight stay is required.
Expect the unexpected
Remain flexible to the fact that the situation could change. Even if overnight monitoring seems unlikely, be mentally prepared that your doctor may decide it is best.
The Day of the Biopsy: What to Expect
The day a biopsy is scheduled, follow any pre-procedure instructions from your doctor. Typical instructions include:
|10 days before||Stop medications that can increase bleeding risk, like blood thinners and NSAIDs|
|Night before||Do not eat or drink anything after midnight the night before the biopsy|
|Day of biopsy||Take medications like normal except those you were advised to hold|
|Day of biopsy||Arrive on time at the designated location|
The biopsy procedure time depends on the type, but most take less than one hour. You will be monitored for a period afterward:
|Biopsy Type||Typical Procedure Length||Typical Post-Procedure Monitoring|
|Skin biopsy||15 minutes||30 minutes|
|Breast or thyroid biopsy||30 minutes||2 hours|
|Prostate biopsy||45 minutes||2-6 hours|
|Bone marrow biopsy||1 hour||4-6 hours overnight|
During monitoring, if it is decided you require more observation or an overnight stay, the necessary arrangements will be made at the procedure facility. Know that this extended stay is for your safety.
What to Expect During an Overnight Stay
If your doctor decides an overnight stay is necessary after your biopsy, here are some things you can expect:
You will need to complete a registration process to become formally admitted. Have your health insurance card ready for photocopying. You may be assigned a hospital ID wristband with basic information like name and date of birth. Your biopsy results will also be tracked under this ID number while admitted.
Assigned Hospital Room
You will be taken to a hospital bed, likely in an intermediate care or step-down unit for more frequent nursing observation overnight versus on a general medical floor. Expect shared rooms unless you opt for a private room for an additional daily cost. Rooms have call buttons to summon nursing staff as needed.
Expect regular check-ins by nurses overnight, usually every 4-6 hours and as needed. They will monitor your heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, pain levels and biopsy site. A doctor will also examine you the morning after the procedure before discharge. Tests like bloodwork or CT scans may be ordered if complications arise.
Medications and Treatments
You may receive IV fluids or antibiotics to prevent infection. Medications for pain control, nausea or other symptoms may be administered as directed by your doctor. Oxygen therapy or blood transfusion rarely may be needed for serious complications.
Expect a limited diet to give your digestive system a rest. You may be limited to clear liquids at first, followed by bland foods after bowel sounds resume. The dietary orders will be tailored to your situation.
Your mobility may be restricted depending on the location of the biopsy. For example, pelvic biopsies may require bed rest. Precautions are taken to avoid stress on the biopsy site and reduce risks like bleeding.
Fall prevention measures may be implemented for your safety like a call bell within reach and keeping the bed in lowest position when unoccupied. Sedation effects, pain or weakness can make falls more likely as an inpatient.
Preparing for Discharge After an Overnight Stay
Once your doctor decides you are stable enough, preparations will begin for discharging you from the hospital:
You will receive verbal and written instructions covering:
- Wound care for the biopsy site
- Medications to take and prescriptions given
- Signs/symptoms to watch for
- Restrictions and limitations on activity
- Follow-up appointment information
- When to call the doctor or return to the ER
The care team will ensure you have arranged for transportation home. Do not plan to drive yourself immediately after discharge.
Prescription and Supply Assistance
The hospital will help you obtain any new prescriptions or medical supplies you may have been prescribed. This ensures you leave with the necessary items.
Billing and Paperwork
The billing department will meet with you and provide information about costs, reimbursement, and insurance questions. copies of records can also be arranged here.
Home Services Set-up
If recommended by your doctor, home health services like nursing visits or physical therapy may be coordinated to start after discharge. Having services in place provides a smooth transition home and continuity of care.
Recovering at Home After an Overnight Hospital Stay
Once discharged home, be sure to follow all instructions given closely to promote healing and watch for any concerning symptoms:
Rest and Take it Easy
Your body has been through trauma and needs time to recuperate. Get lots of rest and avoid strenuous activity for the timeframe recommended by your doctor. Have others help with housework, errands, etc in the short term.
Keep the Biopsy Site Clean and Dry
Follow directions on incision care and keep the area clean and dry. Watch for signs of infection like pus. Contact your doctor right away about any concerns.
Expect Some Minor Side Effects
You may experience soreness, bruising or swelling at the biopsy site for a few days. Mild headache or dizziness from anesthesia can also occur. Call your doctor if symptoms worsen or concern you.
Take Prescribed Medications
Be diligent about taking all medications prescribed exactly as directed. Antibiotics must be taken until gone to prevent dangerous complications. Painkillers will help keep you comfortable as you heal.
Watch for Signs of Complications
Serious complications from biopsies are rare but can happen. If you have bleeding that won’t stop, fever, numbness/weakness, confusion or other worrying symptoms, seek immediate medical care.
Attend Follow-Up Appointments
It is vital to keep all follow-up appointments with your doctor. They will check your recovery, address any lingering effects, and discuss biopsy results with subsequent treatment plans.
While most biopsies are simple outpatient procedures, some types or higher risk cases warrant an overnight hospital stay afterwards for monitoring. Factors like the biopsy location, amount of sedation given, underlying health conditions and complications during the procedure all play a role in this decision. Staying overnight allows doctors to observe for signs of problems and intervene right away if needed. It can be inconvenient and stressful for patients but ultimately helps ensure the best possible outcome. Being prepared for the possibility and following discharge instructions closely is key to safely transitioning back home after biopsy-related hospitalization.