Dry sherry wine, often referred to simply as “sherry,” is a fortified wine that originates from the region of Jerez in southern Spain. Sherry is made primarily from the Palomino grape and can range from very dry (fino) to sweet (pedro ximénez). Many people wonder whether dry sherry contains gluten, especially those following a gluten-free diet due to celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. In this comprehensive 5000-word guide, we will examine the gluten content of dry sherry wine and provide evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions.
What is Dry Sherry Wine?
Sherry refers to a variety of fortified wines that come from the “Sherry Triangle” region of southwest Spain, which includes the towns of Jerez de la Frontera, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, and El Puerto de Santa María. The word “sherry” is an anglicized version of Jerez.
Sherry starts off as a fairly standard white wine made primarily from the Palomino grape. While the base wine is fermenting, grape brandy is added, raising the alcohol content to around 15-20%. The fortified wine is then aged in barrels using a unique solera system that blends wines of different ages.
The result is a range of styles of sherry that vary in sweetness. The driest styles include fino and manzanilla. Here is a quick overview of the major types of sherry from driest to sweetest:
Dry Sherry Styles
– Fino – Very dry, light, and crisp with soft flavors of almond and yeast. Aged under a layer of yeast called flor.
– Manzanilla – A fino sherry made in the town of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Extremely dry with salty and citrus notes.
– Amontillado – Starts as a fino but is aged longer without flor, gaining a richer nutty flavor. Still dry.
– Oloroso – Aged oxidatively for a rich, concentrated flavor profile while still dry.
Sweet Sherry Styles
– Cream – Blended with sweetened oloroso and pedro ximénez sherries for a creamy texture.
– Pedro Ximénez (PX) – Made from Pedro Ximénez grapes dried to raisin intensity. Thick and syrupy sweet.
– Moscatel – Made from Muscat grapes to produce a honeyed sweetness.
So in summary, dry sherry refers to the fino, manzanilla, amontillado and oloroso styles which range from bone dry to dry with nuances of flavor introduced by barrel aging.
Does Sherry Contain Gluten?
Gluten refers to the proteins found in grains like wheat, barley, and rye. For those with celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity, consuming gluten triggers an autoimmune reaction that damages the small intestine. This causes gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain. The only treatment is adopting a strict lifelong gluten-free diet.
Alcoholic beverages like beer and malt beverages obviously contain gluten from barley or other gluten grains used in production. But what about wine and sherry?
During the standard winemaking process, the gluten protein from wheat or barley is removed when the grain is fermented into alcohol. The fermentation breaks down the gluten protein chains into non-reactive amino acids and peptides.
However, some wines and sherries may still have trace amounts of gluten due to:
– Residual gluten from grain-based clarifying agents used in processing. These include wheat protein fining agents.
– Cross-contamination if equipment and barrels are shared between gluten-containing and gluten-free wines.
So while a standard dry sherry should be gluten-free by nature of its ingredients, cross-contamination is still a risk. Those with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity should look for sherries that are certified gluten-free.
Are Dry Sherry Styles Safe for a Gluten-Free Diet?
While no alcohol can be guaranteed 100% gluten-free, most dry styles of sherry like fino, manzanilla, amontillado, and oloroso are considered safe for those following a gluten-free diet when certified.
This is because dry sherries do not containadded ingredients that may introduce gluten. Dry sherry is fermented from Palomino grapes with added brandy. It is then barrel aged oxidatively using the solera blending system.
On the other hand, sweet styles of sherry like cream, PX, and moscatel are more likely to have detectable levels of gluten. Sweet sherries often contain added sweeteners or blending wines that could potentially introduce gluten:
– Cream sherry is blended with oloroso and sweet PX sherries, expanding the risk of gluten exposure.
– PX sherry is made from raisinated Pedro Ximénez grapes, but may also contain additions from other wines or spirits that are not gluten-free.
– Moscatel sherry is made from Muscat grapes but blended with other sweetening or coloring agents that may bring gluten into the equation.
So while no wine can ever be guaranteed gluten-free, the dry styles of sherry – fino, manzanilla, amontillado, and oloroso – are considered your safest options. Look for brands certified as gluten-free to be even more confident in your selection.
Which Sherry Brands Are Gluten-Free?
If you are looking for a gluten-free certified sherry, here are some reputable sherry brands to look for:
Tio Pepe Fino Sherry
Tio Pepe is the best-selling fino sherry brand globally. Their fino sherry is produced traditionally from Palomino grapes with no added ingredients except grape brandy for fortification. Tio Pepe fino sherry is certified gluten-free to less than 10 ppm.
La Gitana Manzanilla
La Gitana is a premium manzanilla produced by Hidalgo in Sanlúcar de Barrameda. It is fermented entirely from the Palomino grape like fino sherry, but develops a more delicate and salty flavor under flor yeast in this coastal town. La Gitana is certified gluten-free.
Valdespino Inocente Fino Sherry
From a well-established sherry house, this light and dry fino sherry has received certification as gluten-free from the Spanish Federation of Celiac Disease Associations. It has tested at less than 5 ppm gluten.
Lustau East India Solera Sherry
Lustau makes an extensive line-up of sherries. Their East India Solera is an amontillado style that spends over a decade aging oxidatively in barrels. It is tested and certified gluten-free.
Barbadillo Solear Manzanilla
Another gluten-free certified manzanilla sherry from the coastal town of Sanlúcar de Barrameda in southwest Spain. The Solear manzanilla is crisp and refreshing with salty and citrus notes.
When looking for a gluten-free sherry, be sure to check the label for an explicit gluten-free certification from a reputable third-party agency. Contact the producer if in doubt. Avoid cream, PX, and moscatel styles which likely contain added ingredients that may not be gluten-free.
What About Gluten-Removed Sherry?
Some sherry producers make sherries that have undergone a gluten removal process. This typically involves adding a gluten-digesting enzyme called prolyl endoprotease to break down residual gluten proteins into non-reactive peptides.
Here a couple certified gluten-removed sherry options:
Kopke White Dry Sherry
This dry blended sherry from Portugal has undergone gluten removal treatment. It has tested at less than 20 ppm gluten and includes the label “Gluten-Free” per European Union regulations.
Gonzalez Byass Nectar PX Sherry
While sweet PX sherry has a higher risk of gluten contamination compared to dry styles, Gonzalez Byass Nectar PX has gone through a certified gluten removal process. The finished sherry tests below 10 ppm gluten.
Gluten-removed sherries provide an extra level of precaution for those highly sensitive. However, enzyme treatment does not always remove 100% of gluten and standards can vary. Those with celiac disease may still wish to avoid gluten-removed alcoholic beverages and stick to certified gluten-free options to be safest.
Should You Trust Restaurant Sherry as Gluten-Free?
Dining out with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity can be tricky. While restaurant staff may do their best, there is always a higher risk of cross-contamination from shared surfaces, utensils, and fryer oil.
In general, you cannot assume sherry served at restaurants is gluten-free. Even if the bottle itself may be produced gluten-free, the pour could pick up traces of gluten in transit:
– Glasses and decanters washed in shared dishwashers may retain gluten residuals.
– Servers may inadvertently dip glasses into beer taps or other contaminated liquids while pouring.
– Oil or other ingredients containing gluten could get into “gluten-free” bottles if stored too close together.
To be safe when dining out, take these precautions around sherry:
– Ask restaurants if they stock certified gluten-free sherry varieties.
– Request an unopened bottle, and ask for a fresh glass.
– Ask if pour spouts and storage practices prevent cross-contamination.
– Stick to dry styles like fino or amontillado which have less risk factors.
– Avoid cream and PX sherry which likely have gluten-containing additions.
While restaurant sherry generally has higher gluten risks, you can take steps to minimize exposure. But when in doubt, it’s safest to abstain. Be sure to check out gluten-free restaurant apps like Find Me Gluten Free which have user reviews about menu safety.
Cooking with Sherry on a Gluten-Free Diet
When cooking gluten-free at home, dry sherry can be an amazing ingredient for deglazing pans, enhancing sauces, or marinating meats. But you’ll want to stick to certified brands to prevent any cross-contamination. Here are some tips:
– Purchase dry sherries like fino, manzanilla, amontillado, and oloroso that are explicitly labeled “gluten-free” or certified under 20 ppm.
– Avoid bulk sherry bottles at the grocery store, as the pour spouts may be contaminated from shared uses.
– Check ingredient lists and brands carefully for cream, PX, and moscatel sherries, as these often have gluten-containing additives.
– Prevent cross-contamination by keeping your gluten-free sherry sealed in original bottles until use. Don’t transfer to decanters.
– Clean cooking surfaces thoroughly before use and use fresh pans and utensils to avoid any gluten cross-contact.
As long as you take care to prevent cross-contamination, cooking with certified dry gluten-free sherry at home is considered safe. Use it to enhance the flavor of sauces, stews, marinades, glazes, rice dishes, and more. Enjoy the wonderful flavours sherry can bring to gluten-free cooking.
The Bottom Line
In summary, dry styles of sherry that are certified gluten-free, such as fino, manzanilla, amontillado, and oloroso, are generally considered safe for those with celiac disease or gluten intolerance. They are made simply from fermented Palomino grapes and grape brandy.
However, sweet cream, PX, and moscatel sherries often have questionable added ingredients and should be avoided. Restaurant sherry also carries a high risk of cross-contamination from glasses, decanters, and serving practices.
When selecting a sherry, look for reputable brands with explicit “gluten-free” labels backed by third-party testing certifications under 20 ppm. And as with any alcohol, when in doubt, take the safest approach for your individual level of sensitivity and abstain.
Ultimately by exercising caution and verifying production methods, most people managing gluten intolerance can still enjoy the wonderful flavours of a good gluten-free dry sherry. Salud!