The hard shell of crabs, known as the exoskeleton, is made up of chitin and is technically edible but not recommended. While chitin provides some nutritional value and health benefits, the shell is difficult for humans to digest and chew. Most people find the texture unappealing. It’s best to avoid eating the shell and focus on the delicious crab meat inside.
What is the hard outer shell of a crab made of?
The hard external skeleton of crabs is known as the exoskeleton. This protective outer shell is made up of a material called chitin (C8H13O5N)n, which is a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine.
Chitin is a fibrous substance that also makes up the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of other arthropods like insects and crustaceans. In crabs, chitin combines with calcium carbonate to form a hard, rigid structure that covers the entire body.
This exoskeleton is divided into two main sections – the dorsal carapace (top shell) and the ventral plastron (bottom shell). The carapace provides protection for the crab’s organs and musculature, while the plastron covers its underside. The shell also functions as an attachment site for muscles.
Periodically, crabs will molt (shed) their exoskeleton and grow a new, larger one to accommodate their growth. The old shell is shed in pieces.
Is it safe to eat the crab shell?
The chitin that makes up a crab’s shell is not toxic or hazardous to humans. So technically, you can eat crab shells.
However, crab shells are extremely hard and rigid, making them difficult for humans to chew and digest. We lack the powerful crushing mouths and specialized digestive enzymes that crabs possess to break down chitin.
So while eating small bits of crab shell won’t harm you, it’s not recommended. The rigid shell pieces could pose a choking hazard or cause internal lacerations or obstructions if swallowed.
It’s best to use tools like crab crackers and picks to remove the meat from the shell, rather than eating the shell itself. The delicious crab meat inside provides the nutrients and culinary enjoyment people seek from crabs.
Does crab shell provide any nutritional value?
While crab shells are not typically eaten, the chitin they contain does offer some nutritional value:
– Chitin provides a good source of fiber, which promotes healthy digestion and gut bacteria.
– Research indicates chitin may have prebiotic properties that support probiotic growth and a healthy microbiome.
– Chitin has been studied for its potential to boost the immune system and lower inflammation.
– Some research finds chitin may lower cholesterol by binding to cholesterol molecules in the gut.
– Chitin has antimicrobial properties that may inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria.
– Derivatives of chitin have antioxidant effects in the body.
So while crab shell can provide some nutritional value thanks to its chitin content, you would have to actually digest the shell to receive these benefits. And the hard, sharp shell makes this difficult for humans. The meat inside the shell is a far tastier and safer way to enjoy delicious, healthy crab.
Are there any health risks to eating crab shells?
While crab shells are not inherently toxic, trying to eat the hard shell does come with the following potential risks:
– Choking hazard: The rigid, sharp shell pieces could become lodged in the throat, blocking the airway. This poses a risk of choking if the obstruction is not cleared.
– Internal injury: Shell fragments could potentially puncture, lacerate or perforate the digestive tract during swallowing or digestion. In severe cases, this could lead to infection or peritonitis.
– Constipation/obstruction: Accumulation of undigested shell pieces could cause a partial or complete blockage (obstruction) in the intestines. This can lead to severe constipation, pain, vomiting and hospitalization to clear the obstruction.
– Nutritional dilution: Shells provide negligible calories. Eating them may fill you up without providing major nutritional value, diluting the overall quality of the meal.
– Contamination: Raw shells may harbor bacteria, viruses and parasites. Proper cooking typically kills contaminants, but eating raw shells introduces risk of food poisoning.
Overall, while not toxic per se, the risks of eating crab shells outweigh any potential benefits. It’s better to enjoy the delicious meat and discard the inedible shell.
When is it okay to eat crab shells?
There are a handful of instances where it may be appropriate to eat pieces of crab shell:
– Small flakes mixed into dishes: Sometimes tiny shell fragments detach during cooking and mix into crab cakes, stuffings, bisques, etc. These tiny undetectable pieces likely won’t cause harm.
– Powdered shells: Dried, pulverized crab shell powder provides an alternative way to consume chitin that is easier to digest. The fine powder may be used as a cooking ingredient or supplement.
– Roasted shells: Roasting or boiling helps tenderize shells. In some regions, roasted crab shells are eaten as a crispy snack or garnish, particularly the smaller leg and body shells.
– Crab butter/mustard: The edible yellow “mustard” or crab butter from cooked crab contains some chitin and shells but in a smooth, spreadable form that is easier to digest.
– Broths/stocks: Simmering crab shells makes a mineral-rich broth, and slightly eating softened particles likely poses little risk.
So if you want to experiment with eating traces of crab shell, it’s safest to do so in a finely powdered or well-cooked form to reduce choking and internal injury risks.
Tips for safely enjoying crab without the shell
Here are some tips for enjoying delicious crab meat without having to eat the hazardous shell:
– Use proper tools like crab mallets, crackers and picks to extract the meat. Picks are ideal for smaller legs and crevices.
– For whole crabs, twist and snap off legs before cracking them open with a mallet. Keep crabs well chilled before cleaning.
– Cut or break shells with poultry shears or kitchen scissors to access hard-to-reach meat.
– After removing large shell pieces, use your fingers as picks to pull out remaining meat. Rinse under cool water.
– Be thorough when eating meat from the body and claws – it’s easy to accidentally ingest smaller shell bits.
– Add crab to pastas, salads, dips, fritters and soups to enjoy the flavor without chewing shells.
– When making crab cakes or other mixtures, be sure to carefully pick through the meat and remove any remaining shell debris.
– Substitute unshelled seafood like shrimp or crawfish in recipes calling for crab if you want to avoid shells entirely.
Enjoying crab meat while avoiding the shell is easy and safer with the proper tools. The satisfaction of a successful crack and lovely lump of meat makes the effort well worth it!
Nutrition facts: Crab meat vs. crab shells
|Crab Meat (3 oz)
|600-800 mg (variable)
This table compares the nutrition profile of cooked crab meat versus crab shells. While shells contain some calcium and magnesium from the calcium carbonate they are made of, they provide minimal nutritional value compared to crab meat. The meat offers ample protein, minerals, and smaller amounts of healthy fats without the risks and poor texture of eating the shell.
Shells from other crustaceans like lobster and shrimp
Like crabs, the shells of related crustaceans including lobster, shrimp, and crawfish are made of chitin and pose similar risks when eaten. Lobster shells are particularly rigid and tough.
In general, the shells of any crustacean should not be eaten. As with crab, you can enjoy soft edible parts like lobster tomalley (green stuff), shrimp heads, or crawfish fat/mustard after thoroughly removing accompanying shell pieces. Any shells should be peeled, picked, or cracked off and removed prior to eating the delicious meat inside.
Cooking techniques that tenderize crab shells
While not recommended for eating, there are some cooking techniques that can help tenderize crab shells:
– Boiling/Steaming: Heat helps denature proteins in the shell, causing it to soften slightly. Boiling or steaming whole crabs makes it easier to extract meat.
– Baking: The dry heat of baking can crisp up shells and alter their structural integrity. Baked shells may crumble more easily.
– Frying: Frying makes shells crispy and somewhat more palatable. Many cultures cook and eat fried soft-shell crab in its entirety.
– Pickling: Acidic ingredients like vinegar can leech minerals from shells over time, tenderizing them. Pickled crab is common in some Asian cuisines.
– Pulverizing: Grinding shells into very fine powders or pastes helps break down chitin and makes it more digestible. Crab paste is used in some dishes.
However, these techniques only make shells marginally more consumable. They remain risky to eat whole and are still best avoided altogether in favor of the delicious meat inside.
Evolutionary reasons why crab shells are difficult for humans to eat
Several evolutionary factors help explain why crab shells are so difficult for humans to eat and digest:
– Chitin digestibility: Unlike crabs, humans lack the specialized digestive enzymes (chitinases) needed to effectively break down chitin molecules.
– Gut acidity: Crab digestive systems are adapted to dissolve rigid shells. Human stomach acid alone cannot adequately dissolve chitin.
– Teeth/chewing: Human teeth and jaws are not designed to crush the hardened carapaces of marine invertebrates. Our teeth quickly wear down trying to chew shells.
– Gut length: Crustacean digestive tracts are specialized to digest chitin. Our shorter gastrointestinal tract lacks the adequate time and microbiome needed to digest a shell.
– Food safety: Cooking food reduces exposure to foodborne pathogens. Early humans evolved to prefer cooked foods over raw shellfish, improving food safety.
So while crabs evolved strong shells to protect their meat, humans evolved to use tools and heat to open shells and access the rewarding food inside. Our evolutionary paths diverged long ago regarding the edibility of shells.
Uses for crab shells beyond eating
Rather than eating them, crab shells can be put to other innovative uses:
– Crushed shells are used in agriculture and gardening to amend soil due to their calcium carbonate and chitin content.
– Shells are incorporated into various crafts, jewelry, art, and decorative objects such as mosaics, beads, buttons, frames, etc.
– Agricultural fertilizers, fungicides, pesticides, and antimicrobial products can be derived from chitin in shells.
– Cleaned shells are used as decorative containers for food like seafood salad or cocktail sauce.
– Crab shells are implemented in various water filtration systems to absorb heavy metals and pollutants.
– Research is being done on using chitin from shells in biomedical applications like sutures, tissue engineering scaffolds, and wound dressings for its antibacterial properties.
– Natural chitin is being studied as an environmentally friendly alternative to plastics for applications in packaging, insulation, textiles, etc.
So while their hard shells prevent crabs from being an ideal direct food source, their renewable shells certainly don’t go to waste. There are ample innovative uses being explored beyond eating them directly.
In summary, while crab shells are technically edible as they are primarily composed of nontoxic chitin, they are very difficult for humans to chew and digest. Consuming the rigid, sharp shell poses substantial choking hazards and risks of internal injury.
The small amount of nutrients shells provide can be easily obtained by enjoying the delicious meat inside after cracking and removing the shell. Evolutionarily, our bodies simply aren’t designed to safely or efficiently eat the hard outer skeleton of crabs and other crustaceans.
If you want to experiment with crab shells, it’s recommended to stick to tiny incidental flakes, or shells that have been finely powdered, cooked extensively, or incorporated into supplements. However, for most diners, the satisfaction is in the luscious crab meat itself, not the shell. With the proper tools, cracking and dismantling the crab shell is a small price to pay for the succulent flesh inside.