What happens if you eat expired sodium bicarbonate?

Eating expired baking soda, or sodium bicarbonate, is generally not recommended but is unlikely to cause serious harm if consumed in small amounts. Sodium bicarbonate is commonly used as a leavening agent in baking and also has some medicinal uses. While it does not spoil in the same way as food items, baking soda can lose potency and degrade in quality over time.

Does baking soda expire?

Yes, baking soda does have an expiration date. Baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate as the active ingredient. The expiration date refers to the date when the sodium bicarbonate begins to degrade and lose its leavening power. An expiration date of 1-2 years from manufacture is typical for baking soda products. The expiration date will be printed on the packaging.

What happens when baking soda expires?

As baking soda ages and gets past its expiration date, the sodium bicarbonate component starts to break down. The decomposing baking soda releases carbon dioxide gas. As it loses its leavening ability, expired baking soda will no longer produce the desired rise in baked goods.

Outdated baking soda also tends to clump and harden over time due to moisture absorption. It may smell sour or give off an ammonia odor due to chemical degradation. The white powdery texture starts to become lumpy or form solid masses.

Is expired baking soda safe to ingest?

Consuming small amounts of expired baking soda is unlikely to cause harm. However, it may produce an upset stomach, gas, or nausea. The fresher the baking soda, the better it will perform for cooking and medicinal uses.

Very old baking soda that is many years past expiration may contain more potentially dangerous byproducts. Consuming large amounts could irritate the digestive tract. But standard amounts called for in recipes and dosing should be safe in soda that has recently expired.

Risks of ingesting large amounts of expired baking soda

While generally recognized as safe, consuming very large quantities of baking soda can potentially cause adverse effects:

  • Indigestion, gas, bloating, nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Electrolyte abnormalities
  • Muscle spasms
  • Burping

Most cases of baking soda overdose occur from overuse for medical purposes like heartburn relief, indigestion, or urinary alkalization. Consuming large amounts at one time or over an extended period can create problems. But typical culinary use in recipes should not lead to excessive consumption even if the soda is expired.

How long past expiration can baking soda be safely used?

As a general guideline, baking soda that is less than one year past the printed expiration date is still safe to consume. Its leavening power may be somewhat diminished and the taste or texture affected, but it is not considered dangerous. Up to 2 years past expiration, small amounts are unlikely to cause issues.

Baking soda more than 3-4 years old may harbor more potentially toxic byproducts. Consuming such extremely expired products could irritate the digestive tract, especially in larger quantities. Very old boxes that have been open for years and subjected to moisture are more questionable.

Can you test if baking soda is still good?

To test if baking soda is still fresh and active, you can use one of these methods:

  • Add vinegar: Add a teaspoon of baking soda to a small amount of vinegar. It should immediately fizz and bubble if it is still good.
  • Add water: Stir a teaspoon of baking soda into half a cup of water. Fresh baking soda will dissolve in the water without leaving gritty residue.
  • Smell: Give the open box a sniff. Baking soda should have a clean, minerally odor. A sour or ammonia smell means it has degraded.

Does expired baking soda become toxic?

Baking soda does not become poisonous or toxic after expiration. The decomposition does create some additional chemical byproducts, but these are not considered toxic at typical ingestion levels. Small and moderate amounts are considered safe up to 2 years past expiration.

Very old, degraded baking soda might theoretically contain trace amounts of potentially harmful substances like ammonia, but likely not at dangerous concentrations with normal use.

Can you bake with expired baking soda?

You can still bake with expired baking soda, but be aware that the leavening power will be diminished. How expired it is will impact the results. Baking soda less than 6 months to 1 year past expiration should still work for baking.

When using expired baking soda for baking:

  • Use the standard recommended amounts called for in recipes as if it were fresh.
  • Avoid recipes where baking soda is the sole leavening agent.
  • Check goods before baking time ends to avoid overbrowning.
  • Add a bit more fresh baking soda if not rising sufficiently.

Baking soda more than 2 years old may not produce adequate rise. Combining some fresh soda with the expired amount can help. Proper storage in an airtight container helps prolong its usefulness.

What are the medicinal uses of baking soda?

Some common medicinal uses of baking soda include:

  • Antacid for heartburn and indigestion relief
  • Neutralizing acid in urine to relieve urinary tract infections
  • Helping treat gout or uric acid kidney stones
  • Soothing canker sores as a mouth rinse
  • Cleaning teeth and freshening breath
  • Calming insect bites and itchy skin

For medicinal purposes, fresher baking soda is ideal. Beyond 6 months to 1 year after expiration, the effectiveness may decline. Very old, degraded baking soda should not be used for health purposes due to lower potency and purity.

Does baking soda fully degrade or go bad?

Baking soda does not fully degrade or “go bad” in terms of food spoilage as it does not support microbial growth. However, the sodium bicarbonate component does break down over time with moisture exposure and temperature fluctuations.

Signs that baking soda has degraded:

  • Hardened clumps or solid chunks form
  • Powder becomes discolored, changing from white to yellow or grey
  • Sour or ammonia odor is emitted
  • Fizzing reaction when mixed with vinegar decreases

Severely degraded baking soda that is many years old should be discarded rather than consumed or used for baking and cleaning purposes.

Does heat or light exposure affect expired baking soda?

Heat and light can accelerate the degradation of baking soda over time:

  • Heat: Storing baking soda in hot places like near an oven or in direct sunlight can hasten moisture loss and chemical breakdown.
  • Light: Exposure to UV light from the sun also increases deterioration. Keeping baking soda in an opaque container helps block light.

For best quality retention, store baking soda in a cool, dry place in an airtight opaque container. Avoid warm, humid areas of the kitchen. Refrigeration can further extend its shelf life.

Does moisture exposure affect expired baking soda?

Yes, moisture exposure from humidity or direct contact with water hastens the degradation of baking soda. Absorbed moisture accelerates the breakdown of sodium bicarbonate over time.

To keep baking soda fresh for longer:

  • Close container tightly after each use.
  • Keep container in a dry environment.
  • Do not store near sinks or other wet areas.
  • Use clean, dry utensils when scooping out baking soda.

Can expired baking soda still be used for cleaning?

Expired or degraded baking soda can still be used for some cleaning purposes, although it may be less effective than fresher product:

  • Cleaning surfaces – countertops, sinks, appliances
  • Deodorizing fridges, carpets, litter boxes
  • Scrubbing vegetables and fruits
  • Polishing metal
  • Unclogging drains

Because large amounts are often used for cleaning applications, even weaker expired soda may provide adequate cleaning power in some cases.

Does baking soda react the same way when expired?

The chemical reactions that make baking soda useful can change when it is expired or degraded:

  • Releases less carbon dioxide when reacting with acid – provides less leavening for baking
  • Weakened neutralizing ability for antacid uses
  • Decreased ability to dissolve and absorb odors
  • Lower scrubbing and abrasive power for cleaning

The older and more degraded the baking soda, the less effective it becomes for leveraging typical chemical properties and reactivity.


While baking soda does lose potency over time, consuming expired baking soda in moderation is unlikely to cause harm. Stomach upset or gas may occur. Consuming large amounts could potentially cause more adverse effects.

Baking soda less than 1 year expired should be safe for use in cooking and medicinal purposes, although potency may be diminished. Beyond 2 years, discarded for consumption unless an emergency. Always smell and test expired soda before using.

Store baking soda properly to maximize shelf life. An airtight container in a cool, dry place helps prevent moisture absorption and decomposition. Consuming baking soda well within the expiration date is ideal for cooking performance and health uses.

Summary of Expired Baking Soda Use
Expired By Safety Uses
Less than 6 months Safe Cooking, medical uses
6 months – 1 year Safe Cooking, medical uses (may have diminished effects)
1-2 years Likely safe in small amounts Cooking in small amounts, cleaning
Over 2 years Use caution, discard if very degraded Cleaning only

Consuming baking soda just past its expiration or “best by” date is unlikely to pose health risks in the short term, but its effectiveness for cooking and medicinal uses will decline over time. Discard very old containers. Proper storage helps maximize shelf life and freshness.

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