What controls testosterone in males?

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and is responsible for the development of male characteristics during puberty. Testosterone plays a crucial role in several bodily functions including bone and muscle growth, fat distribution, sperm production, and sex drive. The production and release of testosterone is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Understanding what controls testosterone levels in males can provide insight into maintaining optimal health and preventing diseases related to testosterone deficiency or excess.

What is Testosterone?

Testosterone is an androgen hormone produced primarily by the testes in males. It is responsible for the development of male reproductive tissues and secondary sex characteristics during puberty such as:

  • Growth of body hair
  • Deepening of the voice
  • Increased muscle mass and strength
  • Growth of facial, pubic, and body hair
  • Increased libido

In addition to its role in puberty, testosterone regulates several functions in adult males:

  • Sex drive and erectile function
  • Fat distribution
  • Bone mass and strength
  • Muscle size and strength
  • Red blood cell production
  • Sperm production

Testosterone levels peak during adolescence and early adulthood. After age 30, testosterone levels slowly decline by about 1% per year. Maintaining healthy testosterone levels is important for overall health and quality of life as a man ages.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) Axis

The production of testosterone is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The HPG axis refers to the complex interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (testes). Here is a brief overview of how each gland interacts to control testosterone:


The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system. It produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland.

GnRH is secreted in pulses and acts to signal the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH. Factors like sleep, stress, and aging can impact GnRH secretion.

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland sits just below the hypothalamus. When stimulated by GnRH, the pituitary gland secretes the gonadotropin hormones LH and FSH.

LH stimulates the production of testosterone in the testes. FSH promotes sperm production. The levels of testosterone and estrogen provide feedback to the pituitary to regulate further hormone secretion.


The testes, or testicles, are responsible for producing testosterone. Specialized cells called Leydig cells in the testes convert cholesterol into testosterone under the stimulation of LH.

The testes also produce small amounts of estrogen, which provide negative feedback to the pituitary to balance testosterone levels.

Factors That Impact Testosterone Levels

Many different factors can influence testosterone production and levels in men. Here is an overview of some of the key lifestyle, health, and biological factors:


As men age, testosterone levels begin to decline after age 30 at a rate of about 1% per year. Many men start to notice the effects of lower testosterone around age 50. Declining levels are a normal part of aging.


Being significantly overweight or obese can reduce testosterone levels. The excessive fat tissue metabolizes and converts testosterone into estrogen through the enzyme aromatase. The low testosterone and higher estrogen can cause erectile dysfunction, reduced muscle mass, and increased breast tissue growth (gynecomastia). Weight loss can help restore testosterone.

Physical Activity

Resistance training with weights and high-intensity exercise can stimulate testosterone production. However, overtraining and excessive endurance training without rest can actually lower testosterone. Getting 30-60 minutes per day of vigorous activity helps boost testosterone.


Getting adequate sleep is vital for maintaining healthy testosterone levels. Lack of sleep increases stress hormones like cortisol, which lowers testosterone. Try to get 7-8 hours of quality sleep per night to optimize testosterone production.


When under constant stress, the adrenal glands secrete more cortisol. Elevated cortisol reduces the production of testosterone. Finding ways to manage stress through relaxation, social connection, or counseling can counteract these effects.

Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies

Deficiencies in zinc, vitamin D, and other essential vitamins and minerals can disrupt testosterone synthesis. Eating a balanced, nutrient-dense diet supports healthy testosterone levels. Some men may need targeted supplementation.


Certain medications or steroids may decrease testosterone production. Opioid pain medicines, glucocorticoids, ketoconazole, and hormones for prostate cancer are examples. Consulting a doctor about medication side effects is recommended.

Chronic Illness

Some health conditions are associated with lower testosterone levels. These include type 2 diabetes, AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), end-stage kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver. Managing the underlying condition can help improve testosterone.

Injury or Damage to Testes

Physical trauma to the testicles, infection (orchitis), testicular cancer, or other causes of testicular damage can impair testosterone synthesis. This may be treated with testosterone replacement therapy.

Ways to Naturally Boost Testosterone

For men looking to safely increase their testosterone levels naturally, here are some evidence-based tips:

Exercise and Lose Weight

Engaging in vigorous exercise for at least 30 minutes per day and losing excess body fat, especially around the abdomen, can lead to significant increases in testosterone.

Reduce Stress

Finding healthy ways to cope with stress such as meditation, nature walks, therapy, or improving time management can minimize cortisol and boost testosterone.

Improve Sleep Habits

Aim for 7-8 hours of quality sleep per night by sticking to a schedule, limiting screen time before bed, and making your bedroom comfortable and dark.

Eat More Healthy Fats

Consume foods rich in monounsaturated fats like avocados, olive oil, nuts and seeds which are linked to increased testosterone. Limit saturated fats.

Increase Vitamin D

Take a daily vitamin D supplement and spend 15-20 minutes in sunlight to make sure your levels are sufficient to support testosterone.

Take Key Supplements

Certain supplements like zinc, vitamin D, D-aspartic acid, and fenugreek may offer modest boosts in testosterone for some men, but more research is needed.

Quit Smoking

Giving up smoking can help restore testosterone levels back to normal ranges in men who smoke.

Signs and Symptoms of Low Testosterone

If a man experiences symptoms of low testosterone accompanied by reduced levels on a blood test, treatment may be warranted. Here are some of the most common signs and symptoms:

  • Low libido or erectile dysfunction
  • Reduced muscle mass and strength
  • Increased body fat and reduced bone density
  • Fatigue, depression, and mood changes
  • Loss of facial, pubic, and body hair
  • Reduced testicle size and firmness
  • Gynecomastia – enlarged breast tissue in men
  • Hot flashes and sweating
  • Loss of height

Men experiencing these symptoms should have their testosterone levels checked by a doctor to determine if treatment is needed. A blood test is done to measure total and free testosterone levels.

Treatment for Low Testosterone

If low testosterone is confirmed through blood work and evaluation, there are a few treatment options available:

Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT)

TRT involves taking prescribed testosterone via injections, gels, patches, or pellets to get testosterone back up to a healthy range. It is very effective but has some potential side effects like acne, enlarged prostate, and lowered sperm count.

HCG Therapy

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) simulates LH to spur testosterone production in the testes. It can be used short-term along with TRT to maintain fertility.

Estrogen Blockers

Medications like clomiphene citrate (Clomid) help reduce estrogen levels and stimulate the pituitary to produce more LH and FSH to boost testosterone.

Lifestyle Modifications

Improving diet, exercise, sleep, and lowering stress can raise testosterone in some men with mild deficiencies. Your doctor can advise on any needed lifestyle changes.

Takeaway Points

Here is a summary of the key takeaways on what controls testosterone levels in males:

  • Testosterone is essential for male health and regulates many bodily processes.
  • The HPG axis involving the hypothalamus, pituitary, and testes regulates testosterone production.
  • Many factors like age, obesity, and illness influence testosterone levels.
  • Exercise, diet, sleep and stress management help support healthy testosterone.
  • Symptoms like low energy, reduced libido and loss of muscle mass may indicate low testosterone.
  • Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medications, and testosterone replacement therapy.

Maintaining healthy testosterone levels is important for men’s health. Understanding what controls testosterone gives men more options for optimizing this vital hormone. Work with your doctor if you suspect hormonal imbalances.

Leave a Comment