How many seats do each party have in Senate?

The United States Senate is made up of 100 members, 2 from each state. Senators are elected to 6-year terms, with about 1/3 of the Senate up for election every 2 years. The Senate is currently split between Democrats and Republicans. As of November 2022, Democrats hold 50 seats and Republicans hold 50 seats. This even split means neither party has an outright majority in the Senate.

Current Senate Makeup by Party

Party Number of Seats
Democrat 50
Republican 50

As the table shows, both Democrats and Republicans hold 50 seats each in the Senate. This 50-50 split has been the case since the 2020 elections when Democrats gained control of the Senate with 50 seats plus the tie-breaking vote of Vice President Kamala Harris.

Recent Changes in Senate Party Control

The current split Senate is a very recent development. Here is a quick overview of how party control of the Senate has changed in the last few election cycles:

  • From 2015-2017, Republicans held 54 seats vs. Democrats 44 seats.
  • From 2017-2019, Republicans held 51 seats vs. Democrats 47 seats.
  • From 2019-2021, Republicans held 53 seats vs. Democrats 45 seats.
  • In the 2020 election, Democrats gained 3 seats to reach 50 seats, splitting control with Republicans at 50 seats each.

As these recent changes show, control of the Senate has been very narrowly split or close to evenly divided over the last few Congresses. The 2020 election brought us to the current 50-50 split.

State Breakdown of Current Senators by Party

To understand the partisan breakdown of the current Senate, it helps to look at each state’s two Senators and their party affiliations:

State Senator 1 Party Senator 2 Party
Alabama Richard Shelby R Tommy Tuberville R
Alaska Lisa Murkowski R Dan Sullivan R
Arizona Kyrsten Sinema D Mark Kelly D
Arkansas John Boozman R Tom Cotton R
California Dianne Feinstein D Alex Padilla D
Colorado Michael Bennet D John Hickenlooper D
Connecticut Richard Blumenthal D Chris Murphy D
Delaware Tom Carper D Chris Coons D
Florida Rick Scott R Marco Rubio R
Georgia Raphael Warnock D Jon Ossoff D
Hawaii Brian Schatz D Mazie Hirono D
Idaho Mike Crapo R Jim Risch R
Illinois Dick Durbin D Tammy Duckworth D
Indiana Todd Young R Mike Braun R
Iowa Chuck Grassley R Joni Ernst R
Kansas Jerry Moran R Roger Marshall R
Kentucky Mitch McConnell R Rand Paul R
Louisiana Bill Cassidy R John Kennedy R
Maine Susan Collins R Angus King I
Maryland Ben Cardin D Chris Van Hollen D
Massachusetts Elizabeth Warren D Ed Markey D
Michigan Debbie Stabenow D Gary Peters D
Minnesota Amy Klobuchar D Tina Smith D
Mississippi Roger Wicker R Cindy Hyde-Smith R
Missouri Josh Hawley R Roy Blunt R
Montana Jon Tester D Steve Daines R
Nebraska Deb Fischer R Ben Sasse R
Nevada Catherine Cortez Masto D Jacky Rosen D
New Hampshire Maggie Hassan D Jeanne Shaheen D
New Jersey Bob Menendez D Cory Booker D
New Mexico Martin Heinrich D Ben Ray Lujan D
New York Chuck Schumer D Kirsten Gillibrand D
North Carolina Richard Burr R Thom Tillis R
North Dakota John Hoeven R Kevin Cramer R
Ohio Sherrod Brown D Rob Portman R
Oklahoma James Lankford R Jim Inhofe R
Oregon Ron Wyden D Jeff Merkley D
Pennsylvania Bob Casey Jr. D Pat Toomey R
Rhode Island Jack Reed D Sheldon Whitehouse D
South Carolina Lindsey Graham R Tim Scott R
South Dakota Mike Rounds R John Thune R
Tennessee Marsha Blackburn R Bill Hagerty R
Texas John Cornyn R Ted Cruz R
Utah Mike Lee R Mitt Romney R
Vermont Patrick Leahy D Bernie Sanders I
Virginia Mark Warner D Tim Kaine D
Washington Patty Murray D Maria Cantwell D
West Virginia Joe Manchin D Shelley Moore Capito R
Wisconsin Tammy Baldwin D Ron Johnson R
Wyoming John Barrasso R Cynthia Lummis R

This breakdown shows the partisan division among Senators from each state. There are currently 34 states with 2 Republican Senators and 14 states with 2 Democratic Senators. The remaining 2 states (Maine and Vermont) have 1 Democratic Senator and 1 Independent Senator who caucuses with the Democrats.

Seats Most Likely to Flip in 2022 Midterms

While Democrats and Republicans are evenly divided at 50 seats each, there are a handful of races in the 2022 midterms that could tip control of the Senate to one party or the other:

  • Arizona – Democratic incumbent Mark Kelly is defending his seat against Republican Blake Masters.
  • Georgia – Democratic incumbent Raphael Warnock is running against Republican Herschel Walker in this competitive race.
  • Nevada – Democratic incumbent Catherine Cortez Masto is in a tight race with Republican Adam Laxalt.
  • New Hampshire – Democratic incumbent Maggie Hassan is being challenged by Republican Don Bolduc.
  • Pennsylvania – Republican open seat with Democrat John Fetterman competing against Republican Mehmet Oz.
  • Wisconsin – Republican incumbent Ron Johnson faces Democrat Mandela Barnes.

These half dozen races could determine if Republicans or Democrats hold the majority after November’s midterm elections. With Vice President Harris as the tie-breaker, Democrats can’t afford to lose any of their current seats if they want to retain majority control. On the flipside, Republicans need to pick up just 1 seat to regain the majority. All eyes will be on these key Senate battlegrounds that will likely decide partisan control.

Current Senate Committee Leadership by Party

The party that holds a majority of Senate seats also holds a majority of leadership positions on Senate committees. Here are the key Senate committees and their current partisan leadership:

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture Debbie Stabenow (D) John Boozman (R)
Appropriations Patrick Leahy (D) Richard Shelby (R)
Armed Services Jack Reed (D) James Inhofe (R)
Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Sherrod Brown (D) Pat Toomey (R)
Budget Bernie Sanders (I) Lindsey Graham (R)
Commerce, Science, and Transportation Maria Cantwell (D) Roger Wicker (R)
Energy and Natural Resources Joe Manchin (D) John Barrasso (R)
Environment and Public Works Tom Carper (D) Shelley Moore Capito (R)
Finance Ron Wyden (D) Mike Crapo (R)
Foreign Relations Bob Menendez (D) Jim Risch (R)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Patty Murray (D) Richard Burr (R)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Gary Peters (D) Rob Portman (R)
Judiciary Dick Durbin (D) Chuck Grassley (R)
Rules and Administration Amy Klobuchar (D) Roy Blunt (R)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Ben Cardin (D) Rand Paul (R)
Veterans’ Affairs Jon Tester (D) Jerry Moran (R)

As this breakdown indicates, Democrats as the majority party hold the chair positions on Senate committees, while Republicans hold the ranking member roles. The only exception is the Budget Committee, where Democrat Bernie Sanders serves as Chair despite being an Independent who caucuses with Democrats. If Republicans gain the majority in the 2022 midterms, the partisan leadership of these committees would flip.


To summarize the current partisan breakdown of the Senate:

  • Democrats and Republicans each hold 50 seats, representing an even 50-50 split
  • Democrats have a slim majority with Vice President Harris as the tie-breaking vote
  • A few key races in 2022 will determine which party controls the majority after the midterms
  • Democrats currently hold more Senate committee chair positions, reflecting their slight majority
  • If Republicans gain even 1 seat in the midterms, they would regain a Senate majority

The Senate hangs in the balance with the razor thin 50-50 margin. Just a single race could tip control of the Senate to Republicans or allow Democrats to expand their paper-thin majority. Both parties are primed for a tough fight this November, knowing that the Senate majority has critical implications for setting the policy agenda and confirming judicial nominees. A single seat currently separates Senate control between Democrats and Republicans.

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