How many cocoa beans does it take to make two pounds of chocolate?

Chocolate is a delicious treat enjoyed by many around the world. It starts as a bean inside a cocoa pod grown on cocoa trees, mainly in tropical regions near the equator. Cocoa beans are the key ingredient for making chocolate. But how many cocoa beans does it actually take to produce a typical chocolate bar? Let’s take a closer look at the chocolate making process to find out.

How Chocolate is Made

There are several steps to turn raw cocoa beans into finished chocolate products:

Harvesting Cocoa Pods

Workers harvest ripe cocoa pods by hand from cocoa trees. The pods are split open to collect the cocoa beans inside. It takes about 400 cocoa beans to make one pound of chocolate. A typical pod contains 20 to 50 beans. So around 8-20 pods are needed per pound of chocolate.

Fermenting & Drying

The cocoa beans are piled and allowed to ferment for 5-7 days. Fermentation develops the flavor and color of the beans. They are then dried either by sunning or using mechanical dryers. This reduces the moisture content from 60% down to 7.5%.

Cleaning & Roasting

The dried beans are cleaned to remove any debris. Next, they are roasted at temperatures between 250-300°F. This enhances the flavor and aroma of the beans.


The outer shell of the beans is removed by winnowing, leaving behind the inner nib which contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter.


The nibs are ground into a liquid form called chocolate liquor. The grinding process reduces the solid nibs into small particles suspended in cocoa butter.

Adding Ingredients

Other ingredients like sugar, milk, vanilla, and lecithin are mixed into the chocolate liquor to turn it into dark, milk, or white chocolate. The percentages and types of ingredients depend on the desired final product.


The term “conching” refers to repeatedly grinding and mixing the chocolate ingredients. This takes several hours or days. Conching ensures smooth texture and flavor development.


Properly tempering chocolate gives it a smooth, glossy finish and pleasant mouthfeel. The chocolate liquor is heated and cooled to specific temperatures to form stable crystals.

Molding & Packaging

Finally, the tempered chocolate is poured into molds, cooled and packaged into bars, chips, or other shapes.

How Many Beans for 2 Pounds of Chocolate?

Now that we understand the general chocolate making process, let’s determine how many beans go into 2 pounds of finished chocolate.

If 1 pound requires 400 beans, then:

  • 2 pounds will need 800 beans (400 x 2)

However, we must also consider chocolate yield rates at each production step. Studies show on average:

  • 100 harvested pods yield 35-40 pounds of wet beans
  • 35-40 pounds of wet beans yields 12 pounds of dried beans
  • 12 pounds of dried beans yields 8 pounds of cocoa liquor
  • 8 pounds of cocoa liquor yields around 10-12 pounds of chocolate

So for 2 pounds of chocolate:

  • We need around 1.7 pounds of cocoa liquor (2 / 1.2)
  • Which requires around 2.1 pounds of dried beans (1.7 / 0.8)
  • Which comes from around 5.9 pounds of wet beans (2.1 / 0.36)
  • Which is the yield from around 59 pods (5.9 / 0.1)

Assuming an average of 35 beans per pod:

  • 59 pods x 35 beans per pod = 2,065 beans

So the estimated number of cocoa beans needed to produce 2 pounds of finished chocolate is around 2,000 beans.

This accounts for standard loss from growing, fermenting, roasting and grinding during processing from raw beans to final chocolate. Amounts may vary slightly depending on factors like bean quality, recipe percentages, and manufacturing efficiency. Nonetheless, this gives a realistic approximation.

World Cocoa Production

Now that we know how many beans go into 2 pounds of chocolate, let’s look at total worldwide cocoa production for context.

According to the International Cocoa Organization (ICCO), the global production of cocoa beans was:

  • 4.6 million metric tons in 2019/20
  • 4.8 million metric tons in 2020/21

The average metric ton of cocoa beans yields:

  • 650 kg of cocoa paste/liquor
  • 512 kg of cocoa butter
  • 430 kg of cocoa powder
  • 1,050 kg of chocolate products

So the world produces enough cocoa to make around:

  • 4.8 billion kg of chocolate per year
  • 10.5 billion pounds of chocolate per year

That’s a lot of chocolate! But remember it starts from around 2,000 cocoa beans per 2 pounds.

Health Benefits of Cocoa

Cocoa beans provide several health benefits, mainly due to compounds called flavonoids that act as antioxidants in the body. Studies show cocoa flavonoids help:

Lower Blood Pressure

Flavonoids encourage nitric oxide production which causes blood vessels to dilate, improving blood flow and lowering blood pressure.

Reduce Risk of Heart Disease

Cocoa helps lower LDL cholesterol levels and reduce inflammation in the cardiovascular system. This lowers the risk of stroke and heart attacks.

Improve Brain Function

Increased blood flow to the brain along with antioxidant effects enhances neuron signaling pathways. This can boost cognition and improve mood.

Control Diabetes Symptoms

Cocoa helps control insulin resistance and regulates glucose metabolism. This helps manage diabetes symptoms.

However, to get the most benefits consume dark chocolate with minimum 70% cocoa content, not milk chocolate. And enjoy in moderation as chocolate is high in calories.

Environmental Impact of Cocoa Farming

While providing delicious chocolate, cocoa farming does raise some environmental concerns, including:


Expanding cocoa farms leads to cutting down rainforest trees. Estimates show cocoa farming caused 2.3 million to 5.5 million hectares of deforestation in Ivory Coast and Ghana.

Heavy Pesticide Use

To protect crops from insects, fungi and plant diseases, cocoa farmers apply pesticides like Lindane, Endosulfan, and Paraquat. This can harm local wildlife.

Soil Depletion

Intensive cocoa monoculture without crop rotation depletes soil nutrients, requiring heavy fertilizer use which runs off causing water pollution.

Carbon Emissions

Converting forests to cocoa farms releases stored carbon into the atmosphere. Growing, harvesting, fermenting and drying cocoa also produces emissions.

Sustainable practices around forest protection, organic farming, and biodiversity can help reduce cocoa’s environmental impact. But consumer demand for cheap chocolate provides little incentive for farmers to implement green measures.

Fair Trade & Child Labor Concerns

Social and ethical issues also arise in the cocoa supply chain, including:

Low Cocoa Prices

High demand keeps cocoa prices low, averaging around $2,500 per tonne. This results in cocoa farmers living in poverty on small plots without adequate pay.

Child Labor

With extremely low wages, cocoa farmers often resort to child labor. Over 2 million children work in hazardous conditions on West African cocoa farms harvesting pods, clearing forests, and applying pesticides.

Fair Trade Certification

Fair trade organizations work to ensure cocoa farmers receive fair pay to improve livelihoods and prohibit child labor. But currently less than 5% of the world’s cocoa is fair trade certified.

Overall, fair wages, labor rights, environmental standards, and supply chain transparency are still big challenges in the cocoa and chocolate industry. But through certification schemes, advocacy campaigns, and consumer awareness, progress is being made.


It takes around 2,000 cocoa beans to produce 2 pounds of delicious chocolate. Cocoa undergoes a long journey from harvested pods to become the key ingredient in chocolate bars around the world. While satisfying sweet cravings, the cocoa supply chain also raises ethical and environmental concerns. As chocolate demand rises, all stakeholders in the system must work together to create a more sustainable and equitable future for cocoa.

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