The IRS has been ramping up efforts to track and tax cryptocurrency transactions and holdings in recent years. With Bitcoin’s rising popularity, the IRS views it as an increasingly important source of tax revenue. But how exactly does the IRS know if you bought Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies?
Does the IRS automatically know if you bought Bitcoin?
The IRS does not automatically know if you buy Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. They rely on taxpayers to self-report any crypto transactions or holdings accurately on their tax returns. However, the IRS does receive information from third-party sources that can reveal crypto activity:
- Cryptocurrency exchanges – Exchanges like Coinbase are required to issue 1099-K forms to users who exceeded $20,000 in transactions in a year. These forms are also sent to the IRS and contain information on your crypto purchases, sales, and transfers.
- Payment processors – Payment processors like BitPay must also report transactions over $20,000 to the IRS on 1099-K forms.
- Wallets/blockchain explorers – While individual wallets generally do not report to the IRS, blockchain analysis tools allow the IRS to track transactions on the blockchain. This gives them insight into transactions associated with a particular wallet.
- Bank records – Banks must report cash deposits or wire transfers exceeding $10,000 to FinCEN, which shares information with the IRS. Large crypto-related transfers could raise flags.
So in summary, the IRS relies heavily on third-party reporting and blockchain analysis to identify taxpayers with crypto activity. But smaller transactions under reporting thresholds could still go undetected if not self-reported.
What triggers an IRS audit for Bitcoin activities?
Here are some red flags that may trigger an IRS audit for Bitcoin and cryptocurrency activities:
- Not reporting any crypto transactions or holdings on your tax return when the IRS has received 1099-K or other third-party reports indicating you have crypto activity.
- Reporting significantly less capital gains/losses from crypto than would reasonably be expected based on your known wallet addresses or transaction histories.
- Claiming the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion and significant capital losses from crypto trading at the same time.
- Transactions involving darknet markets or mixing services to obscure transaction sources.
- Unusually large bank transfers not supported by reported income sources.
- Business accepting large crypto payments without reporting taxable business income.
In general, any significant discrepancies between reported crypto activity and third-party information received, or suspected attempts to conceal ownership or transaction data are likely to prompt an IRS audit.
What information does the IRS request in a crypto audit?
In a cryptocurrency-focused audit, some examples of information the IRS may request include:
- Account statements for all cryptocurrency exchanges you use.
- Full transaction histories for all wallet addresses you own or control.
- Receipts documenting the purchase cost and sale price of cryptocurrencies.
- Explanation of any transfers between wallets you own or to other parties.
- Any Forms 1099-K received from cryptocurrency exchanges or payment processors.
- Invoices or other documentation showing receipt of cryptocurrency as payment for goods/services.
- Records showing the fair market value of cryptocurrency donations on the date donated if claiming a tax deduction.
Failure to provide this information may lead to penalties or the IRS deeming your entire crypto holdings as capital gains subject to taxes if cost basis cannot be verified. It is crucial to maintain thorough records of all cryptocurrency acquisitions, transfers, and dispositions.
What are the penalties for not reporting Bitcoin on taxes?
Penalties for not reporting Bitcoin or cryptocurrency transactions on your taxes include:
- Civil penalties – Up to 25% of the underpaid tax for failure to report cryptocurrency income or capital gains.
- Criminal penalties – Up to $250,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment for tax evasion if unreported crypto transactions were intentional.
- Accuracy-related penalties – 20% of the underpaid tax if underpayment exceeds $5,000 and is substantial.
- Fraud penalties – 75% of the underpaid tax if failure to report is deemed intentional tax fraud.
- Failure to file – Steep fines based on how late unfiled returns are submitted after any required filing extensions.
The IRS treats cryptocurrency no differently than other property like stocks or real estate when it comes to reporting requirements and penalties for non-compliance. Taxpayers should take care to fully report any crypto activity to avoid civil and criminal liability.
Can the IRS detect foreign-held Bitcoin?
It is more difficult for the IRS to detect Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies purchased through foreign-located exchanges or wallets. But here are some ways they may still identify foreign crypto holdings:
- Passport history – If you traveled abroad to countries known for crypto activity and made large cash withdrawals or money transfers while there.
- FATCA reporting – Foreign financial institutions must report assets held by U.S. citizens under FATCA agreements.
- FBAR reporting – You must file an FBAR report if you held $10,000+ in foreign crypto exchange accounts.
- Blockchain analysis tools – Can trace transactions on blockchain to known foreign-based mixers or darknet markets.
- Whistleblowers – Someone reporting you for keeping crypto offshore, violating FBAR requirements, etc.
While simply buying Bitcoin through a foreign exchange isn’t illegal, the IRS can view large offshore holdings as an attempt to evade taxes without strict record-keeping and reporting of those holdings.
Does the IRS differentiate between coins?
The IRS treats all cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dogecoin, etc. the same for tax purposes. Here are some key implications of this:
- Tax reporting requirements are the same regardless of which cryptocurrencies you hold or transact in.
- Capital gains taxes apply based on profits derived from selling or exchanging any cryptocurrency for fiat or another crypto.
- Cryptocurrencies received from mining, staking, and other activities constitute taxable income at their fair market value.
- Purchasing goods or services with cryptocurrency is a taxable event. You must report any capital gains and the fair market value of the purchase as income.
- Gifts received in cryptocurrency are subject to gift tax rules if substantial, while charitable cryptocurrency donations get the same treatment as fiat donations.
The bottom line is that the specific cryptocurrency involved does not change the IRS’s tax treatment and expectations around reporting. Taxpayers need to keep detailed records on all crypto transactions, exchanges, income sources, and purchases, regardless of the particular currency utilized.
How can you prove your cost basis to the IRS?
You can prove the cost basis of your Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to the IRS through the following records:
- Exchange records – Account statements from exchanges where you purchased crypto showing transaction times, currencies, and dollar cost.
- Wallet records – Transaction histories from your personal wallets documenting acquisition sources and costs.
- Receipts – Receipts or invoices showing payment amounts and payment in cryptocurrency for over-the-counter or peer-to-peer purchases.
- Mining records – For mined coins, records to document the fair market value at the date they were successfully mined.
- Staking/interest records – Documentation showing cryptocurrency staking rewards or interest earned and fair market value on the date received.
- Gift documentation – Records substantiating the giver’s cost basis and fair market value of cryptocurrency gifts on the date received.
Having thorough documentation showing the actual cost paid for cryptocurrencies at acquisition is key to minimizing capital gains taxes when coins are later sold or exchanged at a profit.
What is the best way to prepare for a Bitcoin tax audit?
The best ways to prepare for a potential IRS audit related to Bitcoin and cryptocurrency activities include:
- Maintaining meticulous recordkeeping of all cryptocurrency acquisitions, dispositions, gifts, mining/staking activity, exchange/wallet addresses, etc.
- Reporting all cryptocurrency transactions accurately on your annual tax returns, and not underrepresenting the amounts involved.
- Storing backup documentation securely in case it is needed to verify transactions if audited.
- Avoiding transacting with unknown parties, darknet markets, unregulated exchanges, or mixing services that raise audit red flags.
- Filing FBAR/FATCA reports on any foreign exchange accounts or foreign-sourced cryptocurrency gifts.
- Consulting a tax professional experienced in cryptocurrency reporting rules if questions arise.
With the right documentation and up-front tax planning, those holdings cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin can be prepared to demonstrate compliance in the event of an IRS audit request.
The IRS uses a combination of taxpayer self-reporting, third-party information reporting, and blockchain analysis to identify taxpayers with cryptocurrency holdings that may have tax liabilities. While the IRS does not see each individual transaction, discrepancies between reported activity and other available data often triggers audits. Taxpayers can avoid penalties by keeping detailed records, accurately reporting all crypto-related income and capital gains, and taking care to follow all reporting rules both domestically and abroad. With cryptocurrency use rising, properly accounting for Bitcoin and other coins on your taxes is becoming increasingly important.