A dead or patchy lawn can be an eyesore and source of frustration for any homeowner. However, restoring a lawn to its former green glory is possible with some effort and care. Here are the steps to take to get your lawn back to life.
Assess the Damage
The first step is to take a close look at your lawn to identify the extent of the damage. Check for completely dead or thinning grass, as well as dry, brown patches. Examine the blades of grass – are they brittle and snap easily? Press your thumb into the soil – does it crumble easily? This inspection will help you understand what needs to be done to revive your lawn.
Look for causes
While inspecting your lawn, try to identify potential causes for its decline. Common culprits include:
- Lack of water – lawns need about 1 inch of water per week from rain or irrigation.
- Compacted soil – prevents water and nutrients from reaching grass roots.
- Excessive shade – grass needs at least 4-6 hours of sun daily.
- Improper mowing – cutting too short or infrequent mowing causes stress.
- Disease or pests – diseases like brown patch and pests like chinch bugs can damage grass.
- Poor drainage – waterlogged soil deprives roots of oxygen.
Identifying the cause will help you address the underlying problem while restoring your lawn.
Improve Soil Conditions
Most patchy, thin lawns are suffering from poor soil quality. Compacted, infertile soil prevents roots from growing deeply and absorbing nutrients and water properly. Improving soil conditions will enable the grass to thrive again.
Aerate the lawn
Use an aerator to punch holes in the soil, allowing air, water and nutrients to reach the grass roots. Aeration should be done in early fall or spring when the grass is actively growing. Aim to aerate every year for lawns with compacted soil.
Work 1/4 to 1/2 inch of compost into the top layer of soil with a rake or cultivator. Compost introduces organic matter that improves drainage and supplies nutrients. Focus on bare patches for the biggest impact. Reapply compost every year.
Loosen compacted areas
Use a spading fork or shovel to loosen compacted areas of soil before adding compost. Breaking up hardened layers helps roots grow and water infiltrate.
Reseed Bare or Damaged Areas
If there are patches of dead grass or exposed soil, you will need to reseed those areas to restore a full lawn. Early fall is the best time for cool-season grasses like fescue, ryegrass and bluegrass. Spring planting can also be successful.
Prepare the soil
Remove any dead grass or debris from bare spots. Break up the top 1/2 inch of soil with a rake to create a seed bed. Apply a thin layer of compost or starter fertilizer if needed to provide nutrients.
Select the right grass seed
Purchase a seed mix that matches your existing grass type – look for fescue, ryegrass, Bermuda grass, etc. Choose a variety suitable for sun/shade exposure. Consider disease resistant cultivars if your lawn struggled with fungal disease.
Spread the seed
Use a seed spreader or scatter seeds by hand. Aim for good contact between seed and soil. A light layer of straw helps retain moisture after planting. Gently water daily to keep seeds moist until they germinate.
Excess moisture is a common cause of thin, patchy turf. Fixing drainage issues will enable healthy grass growth.
Regrade soggy areas
Build up low spots with extra topsoil to prevent water pooling. Grade gently sloping trenches to divert runoff. Allow 1 inch drop for every 4 feet of trench length.
Add soil amendments
Mix in materials like sand, peat moss or gypsum to improve water infiltration and aeration in compacted soils.
Install drainage system
For serious drainage issues, a French drain system or catch basins may be necessary. Consult a landscaping professional for major drainage solutions.
Consistent, deep watering is vital for restoring thin or bare spots. Grass needs about 1 inch of water per week from rain or irrigation.
Water early in the day
Water first thing in the morning so grass blades dry quickly. This prevents fungal diseases.
Provide deep watering
Water long enough to soak 6-8 inches deep – encourage deeper root growth. Avoid frequent, light sprinklings that only wet the surface.
Inspect sprinklers and adjust to ensure even coverage – bare patches likely indicate poor coverage. Early morning is best time to test sprinklers.
Let soil dry between watering
Wait until top few inches of soil are dry before soaking lawn again. Too much moisture deprives roots of oxygen.
Fertilize at the Right Time
Proper fertilization provides the nutrients grass needs to crow strongly and develop resistance to disease and pests.
Fertilize in fall and spring
Apply fertilizer in early fall and spring when temperatures are cooler – avoid summer fertilizing. Slow release organic fertilizers are ideal.
Perform soil test first
A soil test helps determine your lawn’s nutrient needs. Excess fertilizer can damage grass. Follow test recommendations for best results.
Look for nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus
Choose a balanced fertilizer that contains nitrogen for greening, phosphorus for root growth and potassium for disease resistance.
Focus on bare spots
Spray or spread extra fertilizer over patchy areas to encourage faster regrowth to match surrounding grass.
Adjust Mowing Practices
Proper mowing is key to healthy grass that resists weeds, disease and thinning. Make sure your practices match your grass type.
Maintain sharp mower blades
Sharp blades produce clean cuts that heal quickly. Dull blades tear grass, creating entry points for disease.
Cut at proper height
Consult optimal mowing heights for your grass type. Cutting too short stresses the plants. Leave grass 2-3 inches tall if unsure.
Frequent mowing is better than cutting off too much at once. Remove no more than 1/3 of grass height per cut for a healthy lawn.
Leave clippings on the lawn to decompose – they return nitrogen to the soil. But remove excessive clippings to prevent matting.
Weeds compete with grass for light, space and nutrients. Eliminating them helps restore a thicker lawn.
Hand pull small weeds
Easily remove young, shallow-rooted weeds by hand. Pull gently to get the entire root. Be persistent.
Spot treat with herbicide
Spray herbicide like 2,4-D or Weed-B-Gon on individual weeds or patches. Avoid blanket spraying the entire lawn.
Apply pre-emergent in spring
Pre-emergent herbicides like prodiamine prevent many weed seeds from germinating. Apply before soil temperatures reach 55°F.
Overseed to crowd out weeds
Thick grass shades out weeds naturally. Overseed sparse areas in fall so grass fills in before weeds can take hold.
Control Pests and Diseases
Lawn pests and diseases frequently contribute to die-off and bare patches. Correct identification and treatment are important.
Have damage diagnosed
Take samples of damaged grass and pests to your local extension office for diagnosis. Proper identification ensures effective treatment.
Treat lawn fungal disease
If fungal disease is diagnosed, products containing azoxystrobin, myclobutanil or propiconazole can be applied. Improve drainage to deter disease.
Control damaging pests
Insecticidal soap, neem oil or carbaryl can control chinch bugs, armyworms, and other insects. Remove thatch to reduce damage.
Overseed for resistance
Introducing grass varieties with improved pest and disease resistance helps prevent future problems as you restore lawn density.
Focus on improving underlying conditions to enable grass to spread and self-repair over time. With proper care, you should see gradual improvement over a growing season or two. Consider re-sodding areas that fail to rebound.
Allow time for roots to recover
Developing a deep, healthy root system takes time after soil improvements. Wait 4-8 weeks to see results.
Let grass fill in naturally
Given good growing conditions, surrounding grass will spread to fill bare spots. But don’t hesitate to reseed if progress stalls.
Stay on top of maintenance
Consistency is key – keep mowing, fertilizing, watering, aerating and spot treating weeds/pests to maintain your progress.
Consider re-sodding poor areas
If certain areas show no improvement after reseeding and optimal care, re-sodding may be your best option for achieving an even lawn.
Restoring a patchy, thinning lawn requires patience and diligent care. By identifying the causes, improving soil conditions, reseeding, adjusting maintenance practices and controlling weeds and pests, you can nurse your lawn back to health. With time and persistence, you’ll once again enjoy a lush, green lawn.