Magnesium (Mg) is an alkaline earth metal with an atomic number of 12. It has the electron configuration [Ne] 3s2, which means it has 12 protons in its nucleus and 12 electrons surrounding its nucleus. The outermost shell of Mg contains 2 electrons, which are called valence electrons. Mg has 2 valence electrons because its outer electron shell has an s orbital that can hold a maximum of 2 electrons. The number of valence electrons determines the chemical properties of an element and how it bonds with other elements.
Electron Configuration of Magnesium
The electron configuration of magnesium shows how electrons are distributed in the orbital shells around its nucleus. Magnesium has an atomic number of 12, meaning it contains 12 protons in its nucleus. To be electrically neutral, it must also contain 12 electrons to balance the positive charge of the protons.
The electron configuration notation outlines the energy levels and sublevels that contain electrons. Magnesium’s configuration is written as:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
This shows that magnesium has:
– 2 electrons in the first shell (1s)
– 2 electrons in the second shell (2s)
– 6 electrons in the second shell (2p)
– 2 electrons in the third shell (3s)
The first two shells hold 8 electrons and are filled. The third shell is partially filled with just 2 electrons. These 2 outer electrons in the 3s orbital are valence electrons.
Definition of Valence Electrons
Valence electrons are the outermost electrons in an atom – those located in the highest energy orbital shell. These electrons are important because they determine how atoms interact and bond with each other.
In magnesium’s case, the highest energy level (third shell) has an s subshell with 2 electrons. Therefore, magnesium has 2 valence electrons. These 2 electrons are relatively weakly bound and can participate in chemical bonding. Atoms tend to react in ways that make them more stable, either by gaining, losing, or sharing valence electrons.
Having 2 valence electrons gives magnesium specific chemical properties. Metals like magnesium tend to lose valence electrons to reach a stable octet configuration in compounds.
Why the 3s Orbital Holds 2 Electrons
The electron configuration of magnesium shows that its valence electrons are in the 3s orbital. This orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons.
Orbitals are regions of space around the nucleus where electrons are likely to be located. Each orbital has a defined shape and can hold a limited number of electrons:
– s orbitals are spherical and hold 2 electrons
– p orbitals are dumbbell shaped and hold 6 electrons
– d orbitals are complex shapes and hold 10 electrons
– f orbitals are even more complex shapes that hold 14 electrons
The s subshells furthest from the nucleus fill first. The 1s fills first, then 2s, then 3s. The 3s orbital in magnesium’s third electron shell has space for 2 electrons maximum. Therefore, when magnesium’s electron configuration is written out, the 3s orbital contains 2 valence electrons.
Effects of Valence Electrons on Chemical Properties
The number of valence electrons has a strong influence on an element’s chemical properties. This determines what kinds of ions an element is likely to form and which other elements it can bond with.
Elements in the same column of the periodic table have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of valence electrons. For example, magnesium and the other alkaline earth metals (Be, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) all have 2 valence electrons.
Having 2 valence electrons means magnesium readily gives up these electrons to achieve a stable octet configuration. Losing 2 electrons leaves magnesium with a +2 charge. This makes it very reactive, readily forming ionic compounds like MgCl2, MgBr2, and MgO.
If magnesium had a different number of valence electrons, it would behave differently. With 1 valence electron like lithium, it would lose 1 electron to form +1 ions. With 3 valence electrons like aluminum, it would lose 3 electrons to typically form +3 ions. The number of valence electrons dictates reactivity.
Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonding
Valence electrons play a key role in how atoms bond together. Atoms bond by either transferring valence electrons (ionic bonding) or sharing valence electrons (covalent bonding).
Magnesium readily loses its 2 valence electrons to non-metals like oxygen, sulfur, or the halogens. This ionic bonding results in compounds like MgO, MgS, MgCl2, etc.
Magnesium can also share its 2 valence electrons in covalent bonds with non-metals like carbon. For example, magnesium carbide (MgC2) contains covalent C-Mg bonds. The small size and high charge density of magnesium allows such covalent bonding.
The valence electron configurations of different atoms determine what ratios they combine in. Magnesium combines with non-metals in ratios that allow it to lose its 2 valence electrons. For instance, one Mg atom (2 valence electrons) combines with one O atom (6 valence electrons) to form MgO.
Trends in Valence Electrons
There are clear trends in the periodic table related to valence electrons:
– The number of valence electrons increases from left to right across a period as atomic number increases. Elements gain electrons in higher energy levels as protons are added to the nucleus.
– Valence electrons generally increase moving down a group. The highest energy orbital is farther from the nucleus.
– Metals have low valence electron counts and tend to lose electrons during bonding.
– Non-metals have high valence electron counts and tend to gain electrons during bonding.
– Noble gases have full valence shells and very stable configurations, rarely bonding with other elements.
Looking at its position in the periodic table gives clues about magnesium’s expected valence electron configuration. It lies in group 2, meaning its atoms should readily lose 2 electrons based on trends.
Electronic Configurations of Ions
The number of valence electrons determines what ions an element forms. Ions form when elements gain or lose valence electrons.
Magnesium has a neutral configuration of [Ne] 3s2. When it loses its 2 valence electrons, magnesium forms a positive ion with a 2+ charge: [Ne]. This cation now has an electron configuration equivalent to the previous noble gas, neon. This gives it a stable octet configuration.
For example, in magnesium chloride (MgCl2), magnesium forms an ion with [Ne] configuration while chlorine gains an electron to form Cl- ions. The transfer of electrons leads to ions with stable valence electron configurations.
The charge on an ion depends directly on how many electrons were gained or lost from the neutral atom. Magnesium is very reactive because losing 2 electrons allows it to attain noble gas stability. The properties of an ionic compound like MgCl2 depend on the ions present, which are controlled by valence electrons.
Valence Electrons and Oxidation States
The oxidation state of an atom refers to its charge in a compound if all bonds were purely ionic. Magnesium, which loses 2 valence electrons to form cations like Mg2+, has an oxidation state of +2.
Oxidation states are numbers assigned to atoms that represent their degree of oxidation or reduction. Atoms that lost valence electrons are oxidized and have positive oxidation states. Those that gained electrons are reduced and have negative oxidation states.
For magnesium, possible oxidation states are:
– Mg2+ = +2 (lost 2 valence electrons)
– Mg = 0 (neutral magnesium atom)
– Mg- = -1 (gained 1 electron)
The oxidation state depends directly on the valence electron configuration. Metals like magnesium typically lose all their valence electrons to form cations with positive oxidation states equal to their lost electron count.
Knowing magnesium has 2 valence electrons helps determine its reactivity. Losing 2 electrons allows Mg to reach its preferred +2 oxidation state. Oxidation states are very useful for balancing redox reactions and describing bonding in covalent compounds.
Electron Dot Structures
Electron dot structures provide a simple visual representation of valence electron configuration. Each valence electron is depicted as a dot surrounding the atomic symbol.
For magnesium with 2 valence electrons:
Mg = Mg:
The two dots represent the two electrons in the 3s orbital. This readily shows that magnesium has 2 electrons available for bonding. These Lewis dot structures convey useful information about valence electrons. The number of dots matches the expected charges on ions from the element.
Dot structures also show how valence electrons are transferred or shared during bond formation. For example, magnesium oxide forms by Mg transferring its 2 electrons to oxygen:
Mg O → Mg2+ :O2-
Representing elements visually with electron dot structures simplifies understanding of chemical bonding and reactivity based on valence electrons.
Valence Electrons and Periodic Trends
Valence electron configurations closely follow larger periodic trends in atomic properties. The number of valence electrons substantially influences elemental properties like atomic radius, ionization energy, and electronegativity.
Atomic radius tends to decrease across a period as the number of protons and electrons increase. Higher nuclear charge pulls electrons closer to the nucleus. Valence electrons are farther from the nucleus and easier to remove.
Ionization energy also increases moving left to right. Removing an electron is harder when the attractive force is greater. Valence electrons have higher energies and are easier to remove.
Electronegativity increases across periods as valence electrons are closer to the nucleus. Non-metals have high electronegativities and readily attract electrons during bonding.
Understanding such periodic trends provides further insight into the effects of valence electrons on chemical properties. The location of magnesium helps explain its expected 2+ charge when it loses electrons.
Valence Electron Configuration of Magnesium Ion
When magnesium loses its two valence electrons to form the Mg2+ ion, its electronic configuration changes. The neutral magnesium atom has a [Ne] 3s2 configuration.
The Mg2+ ion that forms has lost both valence electrons, leaving just the filled inner electron shells:
Mg2+ = [Ne]
This gives magnesium the same electron configuration as the noble gas neon. Achieving a noble gas configuration makes magnesium very favorable to lose its valence electrons.
The ionic radius of magnesium also decreases compared to the neutral atom. Removing the valence electrons leads to a stronger charge density and pulls the remaining electrons closer to the nucleus.
The stability of valence electron configurations explains many periodic trends. Losing electrons to attain noble gas configurations drives the formation of cations like Mg2+.
Excitation of Valence Electrons
Valence electrons can sometimes become excited by absorbing energy. This promotes them into a higher energy orbital farther from the nucleus.
In magnesium’s case, one or both of its 3s electrons could be excited into empty 3p or 3d orbitals. This requires energy equal to the difference between the orbital energy levels. Excited electrons are less stable and can return to their ground state by releasing energy.
Excitation of valence electrons accounts for some of the spectral lines observed when elements absorb and emit light. The specific lines correspond to allowed energy jumps between electron orbitals. Studying these atomic emission spectra led to the quantum mechanical model of electron configurations.
The absorption and emission of photons only occurs between allowed orbitals at specific energies matched to valence electron configurations. Exciting valence electrons provides insights into quantum mechanics.
Shielding Effect on Valence Electrons
Inner electron shells exhibit a shielding effect that reduces the nuclear attraction experienced by valence electrons. Electrons in the same orbital cancel out each other’s field, while overlapping electron orbitals screen the charge of the nucleus.
This shielding effect means valence electrons are easier to remove from atoms compared to inner electrons. The outermost electrons do not feel the full positive charge of the nucleus because of shielding by inner shells.
Magnesium’s two 3s valence electrons largely feel the nuclear charge shielded by the filled K and L electron shells. This makes magnesium’s valence electrons more susceptible to removal during reactions.
Shielding is stronger when there are more electron shells between the valence electrons and the nucleus. In big atoms, valence electrons may experience negligible nuclear attraction due to extensive shielding.
Magnetic Properties from Valence Electrons
The magnetic properties of elements depend on the spin states of valence electron pairs:
– Atoms with all paired valence electrons are diamagnetic. Applied fields create a small repulsion.
– Atoms with unpaired valence electrons are paramagnetic. Their magnetic dipole moments align with applied fields.
– Groups of atoms can have ferromagnetism if their unpaired electrons interact strongly.
Most elements contain at least one unpaired valence electron and are paramagnetic. However, magnesium has completely filled s subshells and no unpaired spins. It is weakly diamagnetic since all its electrons are paired.
The magnetic susceptibility of materials comes from electrons with unpaired spins. Magnesium and other alkaline earth metals have weak diamagnetism due to their filled valence s subshells.
Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion Theory
Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory predicts molecular geometry based on minimizing repulsion between valence electron pairs. Electron pairs position themselves as far apart as possible.
In magnesium compounds, the valence electron pairs around Mg2+ and ligands repel each other. For example, in MgCl2 the two chlorides attach on opposite sides of the magnesium cation.
Minimizing this valence pair repulsion generates different molecular geometries with specific bond angles:
– 2 electron pairs → linear 180° bond angles
– 3 pairs → trigonal planar 120° angles
– 4 pairs → tetrahedral 109.5° angles
VSEPR theory successfully predicts real molecular structures based on the repulsion between sets of valence electrons. It demonstrates their key role in molecular geometry and bonding.
In summary, magnesium has two valence electrons located in its 3s orbital. Metals like magnesium readily lose valence electrons when forming cations. Losing its two 3s electrons gives magnesium the stable electron configuration of a noble gas and a +2 oxidation state. The number of valence electrons dictates chemical reactivity and bonding behavior. Trends in atomic properties like size, ionization energy, and electronegativity are related to valence electrons. Electron configurations, Lewis dot structures, magnetic properties, and VSEPR shapes all depend on the valence electrons in the outermost atomic orbital. For magnesium, the two electrons in its 3s shell fundamentally impact its chemical characteristics.