Dahlias are beautiful summer-blooming tubers that produce lush, eye-catching flowers in a wide range of colors, shapes, and sizes. With the proper care, dahlias can thrive in gardens and provide continuous blooms from mid-summer until the first frost. One of the keys to getting abundant, healthy blooms from dahlia plants is providing them with the right fertilizer. Selecting the optimal fertilizer for dahlias encourages strong, vigorous growth and maximizes flowering. This article will examine the best fertilizers for dahlias and provide tips on fertilizing dahlias for optimal results.
What are the nutritional needs of dahlias?
Like all plants, dahlias have specific nutritional requirements that must be met to enable them to grow, flower, and remain healthy. The three primary macronutrients that all plants, including dahlias, need are:
- Nitrogen (N) – fuels growth of leaves, stems, and vegetation
- Phosphorus (P) – promotes root, flower, and fruit development
- Potassium (K) – supports overall plant health and disease resistance
In addition to these macronutrients, dahlias also require certain micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, boron, chlorine, copper, and molybdenum. Magnesium and calcium help regulate nutrient uptake while the others aid in processes like photosynthesis and enzyme production.
An optimal fertilizer for dahlias will contain varying levels of both macro and micronutrients. The ratios of these nutrients are key to addressing the needs of dahlias at different growth stages.
What ratio of nutrients do dahlias need?
Dahlias need slightly higher levels of phosphorus in the early growth stages to stimulate strong roots and promote flowering. As the plants mature, they benefit from more nitrogen to power vegetative growth. Potassium should remain constant at moderate levels. A good nutrient ratio for dahlia fertilizer is:
- Early season – 1-2-1 NPK ratio with higher phosphorus
- Mid/late season – 2-1-1 NPK ratio with higher nitrogen
Micronutrients like iron, manganese, and zinc should also be present in smaller amounts. These ratios provide dahlias with the optimal nutrient balance at different lifecycle phases.
What types of fertilizers are best for dahlias?
There are many types of fertilizers on the market specially formulated for flowers like dahlias. Some of the best options include:
Slow release fertilizers
Slow release, controlled release, or timed release fertilizers have nutrients encapsulated in a shell that breaks down slowly over time. This provides a consistent, steady supply of nutrients that last 6-12 weeks. Osmocote and Scotts Flower Food are examples of quality slow release fertilizers ideal for dahlias.
Liquid fertilizers like fish emulsion or seaweed extract can be applied throughout the dahlia growing season to provide fast nourishment. They are easy to mix with water and apply through irrigation systems or as a foliar spray. Neptune’s Harvest Fish/Seaweed Blend is a good natural liquid fertilizer choice.
Granular fertilizers typically come in pellet or powder forms that you sprinkle onto the soil surrounding dahlias. They break down quicker than slow release versions, providing a nutrient boost. Espoma Garden Flower Fertilizer and Jobe’s Organics Flower Fertilizer Granules are excellent granular dahlia fertilizers.
Compost and manure
Composted manure and compost provides organic matter that enriches soil texture and microbiome. It releases lower levels of nutrients over a longer timeframe. Compost alone doesn’t provide all the nutrients dahlias need but makes an excellent supplement to other fertilizers.
|Slow Release Fertilizers||Provides steady nutrition over an extended timeframe, less chance of burn||Higher upfront cost, nutrients cannot be adjusted or replenished|
|Liquid Fertilizers||Offers quick nourishment, easy application and adjustments, can be foliar applied||Requires more frequent applications, can burn plants if overapplied|
|Granular Fertilizers||Simple to apply, releases nutrients more quickly||Nutrients may leach out with heavy watering, less consistent release|
|Compost/Manure||Organic and sustainable, improves soil texture and microbiome||Lower nutrient levels, slower release, not a complete fertilizer|
How and when should I fertilize dahlias?
Proper timing and methods for applying fertilizer are key to growing thriving, floriferous dahlia plants. Follow these tips for fertilizing dahlias effectively:
- Test soil prior to planting – Use a soil testing kit to determine pH and nutrient levels. Adjust as needed to achieve a slightly acidic pH around 6.5.
- Plant in nutrient rich soil – Work compost, manure, or other organic matter into the soil where you will plant the dahlia tubers.
- Begin fertilizing 2 weeks after sprouting – Once sprouts emerge from the soil, you can begin applying a balanced fertilizer. Use a low nitrogen formula (higher phosphorus) in the early growth stage.
- Switch to higher nitrogen fertilizer midseason – As plants become established, transition to a fertilizer with more nitrogen to fuel plant growth and bloom production.
- Avoid overfertilizing – More is not better with fertilizer. Excessive amounts can damage roots and leaves. Follow package instructions carefully.
- Apply fertilizer evenly – Scatter granular fertilizers uniformly across the soil around dahlias. Be consistent when using liquid versions.
- Supplement with compost – An annual topdressing of compost provides organic matter and a slow release of nutrients.
- Stop fertilizing 6 weeks before first frost – Taper off fertilizer in late summer so plants harden off for winter dormancy.
Adhering to these best practices for fertilizing will set your dahlia plants up for success all season long. Adjust timings and amounts based on the variety you are growing and your regional climate patterns.
What are the best organic fertilizers for dahlias?
Organic dahlia fertilizers are derived from natural sources like animal manures, bone meal, seaweed, and compost. They improve soil health and provide a gentler form of nutrition. Some top organic fertilizer options include:
Composted chicken manure
Composted chicken manure provides a safe, nutritious fertilizer that releases nitrogen, phosphates, and potassium over an extended timeframe. Mix 1-2 inches into soil before planting tubers. Topdress existing plants with 1/2 inch and water in well.
Bone meal is an excellent source of phosphorus derived from ground animal bones. Work 3-4 tablespoons per square foot into the soil prior to planting dahlia tubers. Phosphorus stimulates root growth and blooming.
Fish emulsion is made from fish waste products that provide nitrogen, phosphorus, amino acids, and vitamins. Dilute the concentrated emulsion with water and apply monthly as a liquid fertilizer for dahlias.
Compost tea is created by steeping mature compost in water. The resulting “tea” contains beneficial microbes and nutrients from the compost. Use it to water dahlia plants and boost soil biology.
Seaweed extracts contain over 60 minerals and nutrients absorbed from ocean water. The natural growth hormones in seaweed also stimulate plant growth. Use it as a supplemental liquid fertilizer.
These organic options can be combined in a complete feeding program for robust, vibrant dahlia plants. Always follow label instructions when applying organic fertilizers.
What fertilizer is best for container grown dahlias?
Dahlias confined to containers have limited access to nutrients and require specialized fertilizer formulations tailored for pots and planters. Look for fertilizers made for container plants like these:
Slow release pellets
Slow release pellets provide steady nourishment for the entire season. Place a few pellets in the bottom of the container before planting tubers. Topdress additional pellets around established plants every 6-8 weeks.
Liquid fertilizers are easy to dilute and feed to container dahlias. Use low nitrogen formulations while plants are young and increase nitrogen strength as they grow. Feed plants weekly or biweekly.
Controlled release granules
Granular fertilizers that state they are specifically for containers are optimized to release nutrients in the confines of a pot. Sprinkle granules lightly over the soil surface every 4-6 weeks.
Compost as a soil amendment
Mixing 30-50% compost into container potting soil provides organic matter and nutrients. Re-pot plants in fresh soil amended with compost annually.
Slow release stakes
Insert slow release fertilizer stakes into containers and change out every 2-3 months according to instructions. Place them around actively growing plants.
Monitor container plants closely and be prepared to adjust your fertilizer regimen to meet the needs of your dahlias. Container plants may need more frequent feeding than in-ground plants.
Troubleshooting common dahlia fertilizer problems
Improper fertilization can lead to issues like leaf burn, weak growth, and lack of flowers. Here are some common fertilizer problems and solutions:
Problem: Leaves are burnt or brown at the tips
- Solution: The fertilizer concentration is too strong and salts have built up. Flush soil by watering thoroughly until water drains from the bottom of the container.
Problem: Flowers are small or plants aren’t blooming
- Solution: Plants likely need more phosphorus. Apply a blooming formula fertilizer higher in phosphorus.
Problem: Plants are stunted and yellowing
- Solution: This could indicate insufficient nitrogen. Switch to a fertilizer with higher nitrogen levels.
Problem: Few or no tubers formed
- Solution: Lack of potassium likely inhibited tuber development. Try a fertilizer with more potassium next season.
Knowing how to adjust your fertilizer regimen based on plant cues is an important part of troubleshooting. Don’t be afraid to experiment with different fertilizers until you find what works best for your dahlias.
Key takeaways on fertilizing dahlias
- Test soil and amend with compost prior to planting dahlia tubers
- Begin fertilizing 2 weeks after sprouting with a high phosphorus formula
- Switch to a nitrogen-rich fertilizer when plants are established
- Organic fertilizers like manure, bone meal, and compost provide slow release nutrition
- Container plants need specialized fertilizer designed for pots
- Troubleshoot issues by adjusting fertilizer ratios as needed
- Avoid overfertilizing, carefully follow package directions
Proper fertilization is essential to growing vigorous, floriferous dahlia plants. Pay close attention to fertilizer ratios, timing of application, and amounts used. With a little trial and error, you can determine the optimal fertilizer regimen to maximize the growth and blooms of your dahlia garden.
Dahlias are a beloved flower around the world, prized for their stunning diversity and non-stop blooms. Like all plants, they have specific nutritional requirements that must be met to enable them to reach their full potential. Selecting the right fertilizer, applying it properly, and modifying your approach based on plant signals are key factors for success.
The best fertilizers provide the right ratios of macronutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium along with essential micronutrients. Timed release and organic formulations tailored for flowers ensure a steady supply of nourishment. Pay close attention to the needs of container grown dahlias, as their requirements differ from those planted in the ground. Troubleshooting issues through thoughtful fertilizer adjustments will keep your dahlias thriving season after season.
With this guide to the ideal fertilizers for dahlias, you can confidently provide these beautiful bloomers with the nutrients they crave. Your reward will be bountiful flowers and vigorous tubers year after year. Dahlias are a must-have flower for any garden, so be sure to give them the specialized care they need to dazzle.