What did Karl Marx say about feminism?

Karl Marx, the renowned 19th century philosopher and economist, did not directly address the issue of feminism in his writings. However, his ideas have had a significant influence on feminist theory and the women’s liberation movement. Marx provided a theoretical framework for understanding the origins of women’s oppression in class society. He argued that the root of oppression lies in private property and the pursuit of profit, which shape social relations under capitalism. Many feminists have built upon and critiqued aspects of Marx’s theories to develop a Marxist-feminist analysis of patriarchy and women’s liberation.

Did Marx write about feminism?

No, Karl Marx did not directly write about feminism or women’s liberation. His focus was on critiquing capitalism and advocating for a socialist society. However, Marx co-wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels, who went on to write more substantially about the position of women in society. Engels applied a Marxist analysis to gender oppression in his influential work The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Marx and Engels corresponded about the “woman question” in socialist theory. While acknowledging women’s oppression, they believed that it was rooted in class society and private property, rather than innate gender differences. As economic class was their primary concern, Marx and Engels did not devote specific writings to gender issues or the feminist struggle. However, their materialist conception of history laid the foundation for a Marxist-feminist framework.

Core ideas in Marx’s writings

Some of the key ideas in Marx’s writings that are relevant to feminism include:

Historical materialism

Marx’s theory of historical materialism argues that the economic structure of society – the way production and labor are organized – shapes social consciousness and ideology. Marx characterized different historical epochs according to their modes of production, such as feudalism, capitalism, socialism. The transition from one mode of production to another drives social change. This provides a model for understanding women’s status in society as tied to economic factors.

Critique of private property

Marx argued that private ownership of resources, capital and the means of production enriches the bourgeois ruling class while oppressing the working class. The pursuit of profit leads the bourgeoisie to exploit the proletariat. Marx saw the abolition of private property as essential to ending class inequality. Some feminists apply this critique to patriarchal control of property and women’s bodies under male domination.

Critique of the family

Marx viewed the bourgeois family as helping reproduce class inequality from one generation to the next by controlling inheritance. The family also serves an ideological function by naturalizing the private sphere. Radical feminists have developed this critique, viewing the family as a site of patriarchal control over women and a barrier to liberation.

Alienation and objectification

Marx wrote about how capitalist commodity production results in worker alienation. Labor becomes external, abstract and estranged from the worker. Feminists have analyzed women’s alienation and objectification under patriarchal capitalism in similar terms. Beauty standards and sexualization serve to alienate women from their bodies and sexuality.

Base and superstructure

Marx distinguished between the economic base of society and the culture, ideology, politics and social institutions that form the superstructure above it. He argued the base shapes the superstructure, not vice versa. Feminists extend this analysis to gender relations, theorizing patriarchy and male domination as emerging from women’s economic dependence on men.

Engels on women’s oppression and social reproduction

While Marx did not write substantively on gender issues, Friedrich Engels applied Marxist theory to analyzing women’s oppression in The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State (1884). Drawing on anthropological research, Engels tied women’s subjugation to the rise of private property and monogamous marriage. He argued that male control of wealth and inheritance created family structures focused on domination and social reproduction.

Engels introduced the concept of “social reproduction” – the biological and social processes that reproduce labor power. Women’s unpaid domestic labor and childcare serve as essential functions for reproducing the workforce under capitalism. Engels saw the participation of women in the public workforce as key to their liberation. Marxist feminists have expanded on Engels’ concepts of social reproduction and the relationship between production and reproduction.

Marxist-feminist framework

Later theorists synthesized Marxism and feminism to develop various Marxist-feminist frameworks for understanding women’s oppression and charting liberation struggles. Key aspects include:

Theorizing patriarchy

Marxist feminists view patriarchy as distinct from, but interconnected with, capitalism. Patriarchal relations emerged with the rise of private property, but also exert their own power. Sexual politics operate across and within class. Gender and class are integral to analyzing women’s status in society.

Domestic labor and dual systems theory

Marxist feminists recognize domestic labor as essential work undergirding capitalist production. They advocate for wages for housework. Dual systems theory holds that the system of patriarchy intersects with the system of capitalist class oppression.

Reproduction and alienation

As Marx analyzed production, Marxist feminists analyze social reproduction. Women’s control over biological reproduction is limited under patriarchy. Alienation operates through gendered labor and roles that disempower women.

Ideology of gender difference

Marxist feminism holds that assumed differences between masculine and feminine roles serve an ideological function. Gender myths preserve male domination by naturalizing sex/gender relationships that stem from specific economic and historical conditions.

Class consciousness and feminist consciousness

Class consciousness is seen as enabling workers to recognize their collective interests. Developing feminist consciousness through consciousness raising enables women to understand their shared concerns and mobilize collectively against patriarchy.

Marxist solutions for women’s liberation

Marx argued that revolutionary class struggle to overturn capitalism was the path to human emancipation through socialism. Marxist feminists have proposed various solutions for ending patriarchy, with debate around whether this requires an autonomous women’s movement or can be achieved through socialist revolution alone. Some key proposals:

Socialist revolution

Many Marxist feminists argue that women’s liberation ultimately requires a socialist reorganization of society. This would end private ownership and the profit motive in favor of shared resources and humane production.

Ending domestic slavery

Socialization of domestic labor and childcare would free women from unpaid “domestic slavery.” Social services such as communal kitchens and childcare can enable more equal roles.

Women in the workforce

Capitalism relies on the unpaid labor of women in the home. Drawing women into the public workforce under socialism erodes this patriarchal relation.

Abolition of the family

Some Marxist feminists argue the private family unit upholds oppression and should be abolished. Communal living or child-raising may better serve human development.

Women’s organizations

Autonomous feminist groups help build consciousness and mobilize women in struggle. Women’s caucuses within left organizations empower female participation.

Reproductive freedom

Society must guarantee reproductive self-determination, including access to birth control and abortion without patriarchal or state control.

Political representation

Women need proportional representation in leadership and throughout political structures – in parties, councils and positions of authority.

Critiques of Marxist feminism

Marxist and socialist feminism has been enormously influential, but also controversial. Some key critiques include:

Insufficient analysis of patriarchy

Critics argue Marxist theory does not sufficiently account for the independent power dynamics of male domination distinct from class. Not all issues women face are strictly economic.

Women’s role idealized

Some argue the view of women’s domestic role as entirely positive is simplistic and denies the real oppressions of sexism.

Women’s issues marginalized

Male-dominated socialist and communist movements have often sidelined women’s concerns as tangential.

Limited intersectionality

A sole focus on class and gender overlooks how other identities shape oppression, such as race, sexual orientation, ability, etc.

State authoritarianism

State socialist governments have perpetuated oppression and curtailed reproductive rights.

Obsolescence of family units

Abolishing private families may be impractical and detrimental to human intimacy.

Reductionist frameworks

Patriarchy cannot be totally subsumed under capitalism and class relations in analysis.


Karl Marx’s writings provided an invaluable foundation for understanding women’s oppression within structures of class and economic exploitation. Marxist theory profoundly shaped feminist debate. However, subsequent thinkers have critiqued, revised and expanded upon Marxist perspectives to address flaws and oversights regarding analysis of patriarchy.

Marx did not directly write about feminism or gender issues. But by situating women’s status within historical materialism and critiquing private property, he advanced an analysis of how economic structures impact social inequality. Marxist ideas retain relevance for feminist theory and practice today, even as contemporary feminism has evolved to incorporate broader, intersectional perspectives.

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