What are the six codes of ethics of counselor?

Counselors are guided by codes of ethics that establish important standards for their professional conduct. There are six main ethical codes that counselors must follow: beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, justice, fidelity, and veracity. These codes help ensure that counselors act in an ethical and professional manner when working with clients. Understanding these six ethical codes is crucial for counselors to practice ethically and avoid misconduct.

What are the six main ethical codes for counselors?

The six main ethical codes that counselors must follow are:


Beneficence refers to acting in the client’s best interests by promoting their welfare and working for their benefit. Counselors have an obligation to use their skills and expertise to help clients. Examples of beneficence include protecting the client’s confidentiality, avoiding dual relationships, and providing only appropriate and beneficial services.


Nonmaleficence means to avoid causing harm to clients. Counselors should not provide services beyond their competence level or disclose confidential client information. Counselors also need to be aware of how racial, social, or cultural biases could negatively impact their clients. Avoiding improper practices, impaired counseling, and inadvertent harm are key parts of nonmaleficence.


Respecting and promoting client autonomy is another vital ethical obligation. Counselors have a duty to respect clients’ rights to make their own choices and determine their own direction in counseling. Informed consent, confidentiality, and disclosure are essential to protecting client autonomy. Counselors should not make decisions for clients or coerce them into any particular course of action.


Counselors are ethically bound to promote fairness,equality, and objectivity in their professional activities. They should be committed to treating all clients equally regardless of age, gender, race, or other factors. Counselors also need to advocate within institutions and society for adequate services and fair treatment of marginalized groups. Avoiding discrimination and providing equitable services help uphold justice.


Fidelity involves honoring commitments made to clients and maintaining loyalty to them. Counselors build trust with clients and agree to work in their interest in a professional relationship. It is unethical for counselors to abandon or neglect their clients. Demonstrating consistency, reliability, and integrity help counselors abide by the code of fidelity.


Veracity means being truthful in dealings with clients. Counselors must be honest in representing their qualifications, experience, and abilities. Deception, false advertising, and misrepresentation are clear violations of veracity. Counselors should also correct any misunderstandings clients have and provide factual information. Truthfulness, accuracy, and honesty are key components of veracity.

Why are ethical codes important for counselors?

Adhering to ethical codes is critically important for counselors for several reasons:

  • Protect client welfare – The main purpose of ethical codes is to protect clients from harm and promote their wellbeing when receiving counseling services.
  • Establish professional standards – Ethical codes set clear standards for responsible practice that all counselors should uphold.
  • Prevent misuse of counselor role – Codes prevent exploitation of clients and misuse of the counselor’s position of trust/influence.
  • Avoid malpractice – Unethical actions may constitute malpractice and put counselors at risk of liability and loss of licensure.
  • Uphold public trust – Counselors maintain public confidence by voluntarily regulating themselves through adherence to ethical standards.
  • Resolve dilemmas – Codes provide guidance to counselors when faced with difficult ethical dilemmas and decision-making.
  • Advocate for clients – Codes assist counselors in advocating for appropriate services and treatment of clients.

Following ethical codes is not just optional for counselors – it is a mandatory part of competent, professional practice. Counselors have an ethical obligation to study and understand relevant codes of ethics and apply them consistently in their work. Ongoing ethics training is essential.

What are some examples of how counselors apply these ethical codes?

Counselors regularly integrate ethical codes into their practice, such as through:

Obtaining Informed Consent

Counselors provide details about the counseling process and get written consent before providing services. This demonstrates respect for client autonomy.

Keeping Records Secure

Taking precautions to keep client files and session notes private shows commitment to confidentiality, which falls under benevolence.

Avoiding Harmful Practices

Not utilizing techniques or therapies that could be emotionally or psychologically damaging aligns with nonmaleficence.

Making Appropriate Referrals

Referring clients to other providers when unable to ethically provide services reflects fidelity to professional boundaries.

Advocating for Vulnerable Groups

Standing up for marginalized clients promotes justice and ensures fair treatment.

Representing Credentials Accurately

Honestly communicating training and qualifications demonstrates veracity.

Setting Clear Boundaries

Not engaging in dual relationships and maintaining professional role honors codes of ethics.

Continuing Education

Regularly participating in ethics training exhibits a commitment to ethical practice.

What are some potential red flags or warning signs of unethical behavior?

Counselors should watch for these possible warning signs of unethical conduct:

  • Entering dual or inappropriate relationships with clients
  • Breaching confidentiality without consent or necessity
  • Making important decisions for a client that should be autonomous
  • Engaging in deception or false advertising
  • Failing to terminate counseling when unable to assist client
  • Practicing with impairment from substance abuse or mental health issues
  • Exploiting clients financially or emotionally
  • Engaging in harassment, abuse, or discrimination
  • Falsifying credentials, licensure status, or abilities
  • Ignoring signs of danger to clients or others

Counselors who notice any of these warning signs in themselves or colleagues have an ethical responsibility to take corrective action. Violating ethical codes, even inadvertently, damages professional integrity.

What should a counselor do if they have an ethical concern or dilemma?

If faced with an ethical issue or dilemma, counselors should take these steps:

  1. Identify relevant ethical standards – Consult the codes of ethics from ACA, AACC, ASCA, or related professional organizations.
  2. Seek advice – Contact supervisors or more experienced colleagues for guidance if struggling to interpret standards.
  3. Evaluate options – Develop a list of possible options for addressing the situation in an ethical manner.
  4. Consider outcomes – Analyze the potential positive and negative consequences of each option for the client and others.
  5. Choose course of action – Decide on the option that best aligns with ethical principles after careful deliberation.
  6. Document process – Keep a record describing the dilemma, how codes were applied, consultation obtained, steps taken, and outcome.
  7. Learn from experience – Reflect on the experience for insight into strengthening ethical practice and judgment.

Seeking ethics advice shows professional wisdom. Counselors are encouraged to identify mentors with ethics specialty rather than going it alone.

What are some key best practices for maintaining ethical counseling?

To practice ethically on an ongoing basis, counselors should make these best practices priorities:

  • Understand legal requirements – Know and follow laws, regulations, and policies in counseling practice.
  • Review ethical codes regularly – Revisit codes of ethics frequently as a refresher and resource.
  • Self-assess often – Continuously evaluate own motives and be open to feedback from others.
  • Cultivate ethical habits – Develop daily routines and practices that support ethical compliance.
  • Ask for consent – Ensure informed consent for all services and document it.
  • Seek consultation – Consult colleagues before making difficult ethical decisions.
  • Define scope of competence – Only provide services within boundaries of expertise and experience.
  • Establish office policies – Develop clear policies on confidentiality, emergencies, fees, records, etc.
  • Get liability insurance – Obtain appropriate professional liability insurance for counseling practice.
  • Know when to refer – Refer clients to resources outside area of competence as needed.

Making ethics an active, ongoing priority greatly reduces risks and promotes excellent client care.


Counselors have a profound ethical obligation to clients and the counseling profession. By internalizing the six core ethical codes and applying them diligently to daily practice, counselors demonstrate integrity and commitment to compassionate, beneficial services. Consultation, training, self-assessment, and reference to codes of ethics are indispensable for upholding ethical excellence. When faced with difficult dilemmas, counselors show their ethical maturity by taking a thoughtful, deliberative approach focused on protecting human dignity and welfare. With sustained effort and care, counselors are able to achieve their highest ethical aspirations and deliver care that embodies their humanistic principles.

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