Is there a smoke detector that detects cigarette smoke?

Smoke detectors are an essential safety device in homes, apartments, offices, hotels, stores, and other buildings. Most modern smoke detectors use photoelectric sensors that detect large smoke particles from fires. However, these traditional smoke detectors often do not detect the smaller smoke particles produced by smoldering cigarettes. So is there a type of smoke detector that can reliably detect cigarette smoke?

How do traditional smoke detectors work?

Most residential smoke detectors use a photoelectric sensor, which consists of a light source, usually near infrared light, and a photosensitive sensor. The light source shoots a beam of light into a chamber. When smoke enters the chamber, the light beam hits the smoke particles and reflects onto the sensor. The sensor detects this change in light pattern and triggers the alarm. Photoelectric sensors are good at detecting large smoke particles but not as sensitive to smaller particles.

Smoke from fast flaming fires contains a high proportion of large smoke particles. But smoke from smoldering cigarettes has much smaller particles. So cigarette smoke often does not reflect enough light to trigger a photoelectric sensor smoke alarm.

Types of smoke detectors

There are three main types of smoke detectors:

  • Photoelectric – detects large smoke particles but not small particles
  • Ionization – detects small smoke particles but not large ones
  • Dual sensor – uses both photoelectric and ionization sensors

Ionization smoke detectors use a small amount of radioactive material to ionize air between two electrically charged plates. When smoke enters, the ionized particles attach to the smoke particles, reducing the current flow and triggering the alarm. Ionization detectors are better at detecting small smoke particles.

Photoelectric smoke detectors

Photoelectric smoke detectors, as described above, use a beam of light and a light sensor. They are sensitive to large smoke particles from fast flaming fires. But they often do not detect smaller particles from smoldering cigarettes.

Ionization smoke detectors

Ionization smoke detectors use a small radioactive source, usually americium-241, to ionize air molecules between two electrically charged plates. This allows a small current to flow. When smoke enters the chamber, the ionized particles attach to the smoke particles, reducing the current flow and triggering the alarm. Ionization detectors are designed to detect small smoke particles.

Dual sensor smoke detectors

Dual sensor smoke detectors combine both photoelectric and ionization sensors. This allows them to respond quickly to both large smoke particles from open flames as well as smaller particles from smoldering cigarettes.

Do ionization detectors detect cigarette smoke?

Yes, ionization smoke detectors are designed specifically to detect small smoke particles like those produced by cigarettes. The ionized air particles in the sensor chamber readily attach to the small cigarette smoke particles, reducing the electric current flow and triggering the alarm.

Studies have shown that ionization detectors respond faster and more consistently to cigarette smoke than photoelectric detectors. However, ionization sensors may also sometimes give false alarms due to dust particles or insects entering the chamber.

Dual sensor detectors for optimal cigarette smoke detection

For quickly detecting both open flames and smoldering cigarettes, dual sensor smoke detectors that combine photoelectric and ionization sensors are considered optimal. The photoelectric sensor quickly detects large smoke particles from open fires, while the ionization sensor detects smaller cigarette smoke particles that a photoelectric sensor may miss.

Major smoke detector manufacturers such as Kidde, First Alert, Nest, and Honeywell offer dual sensor models. These provide maximum fire safety by detecting both large and small smoke particles quickly.

Smoke detector placement recommendations

For effective cigarette smoke detection, smoke detectors should be installed in these locations:

  • Main living area
  • Bedrooms
  • Hallways leading to bedrooms
  • Top of staircases
  • Basement

Smoke rises, so mounting detectors high on walls or ceilings is optimal. Keep detectors away from ventilation ducts that could siphon away smoke. Refer to manufacturer guidelines for ideal placement and mounting height.

Regular smoke detector testing and maintenance

Smoke detectors should be tested monthly to ensure they detect smoke properly. Press the test button to trigger the alarm. Use canned smoke if available to test smoke entry into the sensor.

Check that there are no obstructions limiting smoke entry. Dust or debris can cause false alarms or failure to alarm. Clean smoke detectors regularly by vacuuming and wiping with a damp cloth. Follow manufacturer cleaning guidelines.

Smoke detectors have a limited service life. Ionization and photoelectric sensors typically last around 8-10 years before they need replacement. Dual sensor smoke detectors often last 6-8 years. Check the manufacture date and replace units that are over 10 years old.

The radioactive material in ionization detectors can decay over time. Replace ionization detectors every 10 years at most. Always replace smoke detectors immediately if they fail to respond in testing.

Smoke detector limitations

While smoke detectors are highly effective lifesaving devices, they do have some limitations:

  • Smoke may not reach the detector if fire starts in chimney, roof or blocked area
  • Cooking fumes or steam can cause nuisance alarms
  • Cigarette or cigar smoke drifting under a door may be blocked by the door
  • Particles from burning toast or broiled meat may not reach smoke detector if kitchen is closed off

Installing multiple interconnected smoke alarms improves coverage in case one detector does not respond. Newer smart smoke detectors can send alerts and status updates to your smartphone to help address nuisance alarms.

Fire prevention tips

Smoke detectors provide vital early warning of a fire, but the best solution is preventing fires. Follow these important fire prevention tips in addition to having working smoke detectors:

  • Avoid smoking indoors. Smoke only outside and extinguish cigarettes fully.
  • Use deep, non-tip ashtrays if you do smoke indoors.
  • Don’t leave cooking unattended. Stay in kitchen when frying or broiling.
  • Keep space heaters away from combustibles like curtains or furniture.
  • Inspect electrical cords and appliances for damage. Replace if worn or cracked.
  • Use outlet covers to keep children away from electrical sockets.
  • Test smoke detectors monthly and replace them every 8-10 years.

Conclusion

Ionization smoke detectors are specifically designed to detect small smoke particles like those produced by smoldering cigarette smoke. Dual sensor smoke detectors that combine ionization and photoelectric sensors provide optimal protection by detecting both flaming and smoldering fire smoke quickly. Strategically place multiple dual sensor smoke detectors in the home. Combine smoke detectors with fire prevention measures for best protection.

Leave a Comment