The number of watts needed to power a house with solar panels depends on several factors, including:
– Location and sunlight hours – More sunlight equals more solar power generation
– House size – Larger houses use more electricity and need more solar panel capacity
– Energy efficiency – More efficient appliances and lighting reduce electricity needs
– Electricity usage – The more electricity used, the more solar capacity is needed
As a general guideline, a typical home will need between 5,000-8,000 watts of solar panels to cover its electricity usage. However, an energy audit is recommended to determine the specific solar needs of each home.
Installing solar panels on your roof is an excellent way to reduce or even eliminate your home’s electricity bills. By harnessing the free and abundant power of the sun, solar panels can generate clean electricity to power your lights, appliances, electronics and more.
But before installing a solar panel system, one of the key questions homeowners ask is: how many watts of solar panels do I need to power my house?
Determining the right solar panel system size for your home is important. Undersizing your system means you won’t be able to fully power your home with solar energy. Oversizing can increase upfront system costs more than necessary.
The number of solar watts needed depends on several factors unique to each home. In this article, we’ll examine these factors and provide general guidance on capacity needs based on location and home size. We’ll also discuss why an energy audit from a solar installer is recommended to size your system properly.
Equipped with this information, you’ll be prepared to choose the ideal solar panel system to effectively power your house.
Key Factors That Determine Solar Panel Watts Needed
When determining how many solar watts you need, there are four main factors to consider:
Location and Sunlight Hours
The amount of sunlight your area receives has a major impact on solar panel output. Areas with more annual sunny days and sunlight hours will produce more solar electricity.
As a rule of thumb, you should have at least 4 peak sunlight hours per day for solar panels to be effective. Parts of the U.S. Southwest like Arizona and New Mexico have over 6 peak sunlight hours daily. Compare that to the Pacific Northwest which averages closer to 3 peak sunlight hours per day.
To find your location’s sunshine data, use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s PVWatts Calculator. Input your zip code to get monthly and annual sunlight hours, which informs solar panel sizing.
More sun = fewer solar panel watts needed. Less sun = more solar watts needed.
Home Size and Electricity Use
Larger homes with more space to power generally need larger solar systems. The electricity use of an average 3-bedroom home is higher than that of a 2-bedroom apartment.
Consult recent electricity bills to determine your home’s monthly and annual energy consumption, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh).
This electricity usage directly informs the solar array size needed. More electricity used = larger solar system required.
Improving your home’s energy efficiency reduces the solar watts needed. Efficiency upgrades like air sealing, LED lighting, and EnergyStar appliances can lower electricity consumption.
Any reduction in your home’s electricity use through efficiency has a proportional reduction in the solar system size needed. Always make energy efficiency improvements before solar installation to optimize panel sizing.
Future Electricity Needs
When sizing your solar panel system, it’s also important to consider future electricity needs. Will you be purchasing an electric vehicle that will need charging? Do you plan to install a pool or hot tub?
Factor in any anticipated major electricity draws into your solar panel capacity. It’s more cost-effective to size your system properly from the start than have to expand it later.
General Solar Panel System Sizing By Location and House Size
As a general guideline, here are the solar panel wattages typically needed based on location and house size:
For homes in the Southwest region with abundant sun like Arizona and New Mexico, here are the average solar panel system sizes:
– Small 1-2 bedroom home or apartment: 3,000 – 5,000 watts
– Average 3-bedroom house: 5,000 – 8,000 watts
– Large 4-5 bedroom home: 8,000 – 12,000+ watts
Midwest and Northeast Locations
For the Midwest and Northeast regions with less sun, average solar capacities are:
– Small 1-2 bedroom home or apartment: 4,000 – 8,000 watts
– Average 3-bedroom house: 8,000 – 12,000 watts
– Large 4-5 bedroom home: 12,000 – 18,000+ watts
These wattages assume an average home energy use of 700-1,200 kWh per month and standard solar panel efficiency.
Why Your Location Matters
As you can see, location significantly impacts the number of solar watts needed, with Southwest homes requiring smaller systems for the same house size.
This is because the Southwest averages 4-6 peak sun hours per day, compared to only 3-4 peak sun hours in parts of the Northeast and Midwest. More sun = higher solar production = fewer watts needed.
When determining overall system size, you must match your solar watt needs to a properly sized inverter. This device converts the DC electricity from the panels to usable AC electricity.
As a rule of thumb, choose an inverter that is 1.2 to 1.3 times your solar array’s wattage output. This allows the inverter to operate efficiently despite environmental factors like high temperatures.
So for a 5,000 watt solar array, pair it with a 6,000-6,500 watt inverter for optimal performance. Any reputable solar installer will assist with ideal inverter selection.
Why You Should Get an Energy Audit
While the solar watt guidelines above provide a helpful starting point, the most accurate way to size your system is through a professional energy audit.
This detailed assessment by your solar installer examines your home’s specific energy efficiency and usage. It will account for the unique characteristics that determine your exact solar needs.
Benefits of getting an energy audit and custom system sizing:
– Optimizes your system size and return on investment
– Ensures your solar panels can fully power your home
– Reduces the risk of under or oversizing your system
– Qualifies you for the maximum rebates and incentives
Most solar companies provide free energy audits. This custom analysis is the best way to determine exactly how many watts solar panels you need to run your house.
Solar Panel Efficiency Factors
In addition to your location and electricity use, the type of solar panels and overall system design also impact wattage needs.
Key efficiency factors include:
Panel Efficiency Rating
Expressed as a percentage, a panel’s efficiency rating determines how much sunlight it can convert into usable electricity. Standard panels are around 15-18% efficient. Premium panels can reach over 22% efficiency.
More efficient panels produce more kilowatt-hours from the same amount of sunlight. This allows you to use fewer panels to achieve your needed system capacity.
Quality solar panels come with 20-25 year product and performance warranties. Opt for panels backed by reliable warranties from reputable manufacturers. This ensures your system performs consistently over decades.
Modern inverters are very efficient, converting over 97% of DC current into AC. Microinverters dedicated to each panel further optimize efficiency. Inverter technology is always improving too.
Rooftop and Panel Orientation
Optimal rooftop exposure to direct sunlight, along with tilting panels at the proper angle, improves efficiency. Work with your installer to position your system for maximum sun capture.
Nearby trees or buildings that shade the solar array will greatly reduce power generation. Carefully analyze shading patterns on your property when designing your system.
Estimating Your Solar Electricity Production
Once you’ve determined the right system size in watts, you can estimate your potential solar electricity production using industry standard calculations.
These production projections help determine if your planned solar array will fully meet your household usage.
Here is the basic formula:
Daily Solar Production (kWh) = Rated System Size (kW) x Hours of Sunlight x System Efficiency
As an example:
5 kW System x 5 Avg. Daily Sun Hours x 0.85 Efficiency = 21.25 kWh Per Day
Monthly Solar Production (kWh) = 21.25 kWh x 30 Days = 637.5 kWh Per Month
This estimated production can be compared to your monthly energy bill to see if your needed power is covered. If not, system size can be adjusted up.
– For most homes, you need between 5,000 – 8,000 watts of solar panels, but an energy audit provides exact size needed based on your unique home’s power needs.
– Sunnier Southwest locations require smaller systems than Northeast/Midwest regions.
– Homes with more square footage and higher electricity usage require more solar wattage.
– Improving your home’s energy efficiency reduces the solar panel capacity required.
– Match your solar array wattage to a properly sized inverter for optimal efficiency.
– An energy audit and custom system design is the most accurate way to size your solar panel system.
Sizing your solar panel system correctly is crucial to meeting your home’s electricity needs. The major factors that determine capacity requirements include your location’s sunlight availability, your home’s square footage and power consumption, energy efficiency level, and future usage plans.
While the solar watt guidelines give you an approximate range for capacity, an energy audit performed by an installer will dial-in system specifics for your unique property. This custom analysis accounts for all the variables that determine exact wattage needed to run your house on solar panels.
Most homeowners need between 5,000 to 8,000 watts, but your necessary capacity depends on your particular conditions. Leverage available sunshine audits and work with reputable solar companies to right-size your system for maximum home energy offset.
With smart solar panel sizing and quality installation, you’ll enjoy free solar power and dramatically lower electric bills for decades to come. Go solar and lead your home toward energy independence today!