Cutting your dog’s nails is an important part of keeping them healthy and comfortable. But it can be tricky to know exactly when to stop clipping. Cut too far and you risk hitting the quick, which contains blood vessels and nerves. This can be painful for your dog and cause the nail to bleed. So how do you know when to stop?
Look for the quick
The key is locating the quick before you start cutting. The quick is the pinkish area inside the nail that contains blood vessels and nerves. It extends part way into the nail, usually about halfway down towards the base. The quick will bleed if it’s cut, so you want to avoid it. Here’s how to find it:
- Look at the nail head-on to see the small dark circle in the center – this is the end of the quick you need to avoid.
- Look at the nail from the side to see how far down the quick extends – it will appear pinkish.
- In lighter nails, shine a flashlight through the nail to illuminate the quick.
- Press on the nail to see the flesh inside move – that’s the quick.
Once you locate the end of the quick, you know how short you can safely cut.
Cut a small amount at a time
Never cut off large portions of the nail at once. You could accidentally go too short and hit the quick. Instead, take it slow by clipping only a small sliver at a time. After each tiny clip, check to see how much distance still remains between the end of the nail and the quick. If it seems you have room to go shorter, clip again slightly above the previous cut.
Stop when you’re 2-3 mm from the quick
A good rule of thumb is to stop cutting when you get within 2-3 millimeters of the quick. Any shorter increases the risk of hitting it. The nail may still seem a bit too long at this point, but further clipping could expose the quick. Don’t be tempted to cut any closer.
Look for these signs to stop
As you get close to the quick, watch for these signs that indicate it’s time to stop trimming:
- Grey or black spot visible in nail’s center – This means you’ve reached the end of the quick and can’t cut any further.
- V-shaped notch appears in the cut edge of the nail – The point of the “V” is a warning you’re nearing the quick.
- Your dog begins feeling pain or discomfort – If they yelp, pull their paw away, or seem distressed, it likely means you’ve hit the quick, so stop immediately.
- You see any trace of pink in the nail – Pink indicates you’ve hit the vascular quick and it has started to bleed a little. Stop cutting right away.
If you notice any of these signs, cease trimming immediately to avoid hurting your dog or causing further bleeding and pain.
Be extra careful with dark nails
When a dog has black or dark-colored nails, it can be tricky to see the quick and know when to quit cutting. With no visible quick, take extra precautions not to cut the nails too short:
- Trim only the tiniest bit at a time, and trim frequently rather than taking off large pieces.
- Look closely as you cut for any grey or black circle to appear, signalling you’ve hit the quick.
- Go slowly and carefully, watching for any discomfort which could mean you’re getting dangerously close.
- If you can’t see what you’re doing, don’t cut any further. It’s better to trim a little less than risk hurting them.
What to do if you hit the quick
Even experienced nail trimmers can accidentally hit the quick sometimes, usually while trimming dark nails. It happens, so don’t panic or punish your dog. Here’s what to do next:
- Stay calm and comfort your dog if they’re in pain or distress.
- Apply pressure near the cut to stop any bleeding. Styptic powder or cornstarch can help constrict the blood vessels.
- Trim less of the other nails, since one painful cut may make your dog skittish about further trimming.
- Clean the nail to avoid infection.
- Watch for persistent bleeding that could indicate a severely damaged quick. Seek veterinary care if this occurs.
- Give treats and praise to rebuild trust and prevent fear of future trims.
How short can you cut black nails?
With black or dark dog nails, it’s safest to only trim off the very tips. Remove just the sharpest point to blunt the nail’s edge. Never cut dark nails as short as you would a light nail where you can see the quick.
Should you be able to see the quick after cutting?
No, the whole point is to cut the nail without exposing or hitting the quick. You want to leave a small buffer between your cut and the start of the quick. For light nails, aim to keep about 2-3 mm of clear nail above the quick. If you can see the dark quick circle after cutting, you’ve gone too short.
What if I cut the quick and it bleeds a lot?
Rarely, a nail may bleed profusely if the quick is severely cut or torn. The high blood supply to the nail bed and the tendency for nails to curve can cause persistent bleeding. Apply prolonged pressure with a clean cloth or special agent like styptic powder. If bleeding continues for more than 5-10 minutes, take your dog to the vet. Prompt veterinary treatment is needed to stop blood loss, prevent shock, and avoid infection.
Why can cutting the quick be dangerous?
Cutting into the quick can damage the nail bed and be extremely painful. It also poses a few other risks:
- Excessive bleeding – Quick blood vessels may bleed heavily.
- Infection – An open wound can allow bacteria inside the nail.
- Nail deformity – The nail may become misshapen as it heals and grow irregularly.
- Loss of nail – Part or all of the nail could die and fall off if the matrix is damaged.
- Chronic pain – Nerve trauma may lead to long-term pain, even requiring nail removal.
Take care to avoid these complications by stopping cuts well short of the quick. Seek prompt veterinary care if you do hit it.
Does hitting the quick hurt dogs?
Yes, cutting the quick is quite painful for dogs because it exposes sensitive nerve endings. The sudden, sharp pain may make them yelp or pull their paw away. They may lick at the nail or act anxious or distressed. The pain likely subsides to soreness within a day or two as the minor wound heals.
Do nails stop growing if you hit the quick?
Usually no, nail growth isn’t permanently halted by hitting the quick. The nail matrix at the base continues generating new nail material. But severe injury to the matrix, known as nail bed ablation, could impede regrowth. In most cases, the nail will resume normal growth after a few weeks as the quick recedes and the cut edge grows out.
Can you cut the quick if the nail is overgrown?
Overgrown nails require careful trimming to avoid hitting the elongated quick inside. Take great care by:
- Filing or grinding first to shorten the nail if it’s very overgrown.
- Looking closely to find the furthest extent of the quick.
- Cutting only a tiny amount at a time.
- Frequently stopping to recheck for quick exposure.
- Being prepared to stop even if the nail remains fairly long.
With patience and caution, you can trim overgrown nails without hitting the quick. But it may take multiple sessions to shorten them gradually. If in doubt, seek veterinary assistance.
How do vets cut black dog nails?
Veterinarians use a few professional techniques to safely trim black dog nails:
- Illuminating tools like transilluminators shine bright light through the nail to reveal the internal quick.
- Nail clippers designed just for black nails help guide the cut to avoid the quick.
- Small snips only remove slivers to gradually shorten the nail while watching for the quick.
- Styptics like potassium permanganate quickly stop any accidental bleeding.
Even with special tools, vets take great care and patience with dark nails. They may advise sedation for extremely anxious or fractious dogs to avoid sudden movements while cutting.
Knowing when to stop cutting your dog’s nails requires paying close attention while trimming. For light nails, look for the quick and stop 2-3 mm away. For dark nails, trim cautiously with very small snips, watching for any indications you’ve hit the quick. Stop immediately if you see the quick or cause any pain. Leaving a little extra length is wise when uncertain. With practice and caution, you can master trimming your dog’s nails to a safe, comfortable length.