Celiacs and those with gluten sensitivity or intolerance should avoid all forms of wheat, including durum wheat. Durum wheat contains gluten and will cause an immune reaction in those with celiac disease or gluten intolerance.
What is Durum Wheat?
Durum wheat is a variety of wheat that is commonly used to make pasta. It has a high protein content and gluten strength, which allows it to be processed into dense, chewy pasta noodles.
Some key facts about durum wheat:
- It is a tetraploid wheat, meaning it has 4 sets of chromosomes.
- It has a yellow-amber color and is also known as macaroni wheat or pasta wheat.
- Durum wheat is used to make semolina flour, which gives pasta its texture.
- It contains gluten proteins, including gliadin and glutenin.
- Major producers include Canada, the United States, Italy, and Turkey.
Why Durum Wheat Contains Gluten
All forms of wheat, including durum wheat, contain gluten. Gluten is a group of proteins found naturally in wheat, rye, barley and triticale.
The two main proteins that make up gluten are:
- Gliadins – responsible for the viscous, sticky texture of gluten
- Glutenins – provide elasticity and strength to dough
Durum wheat has a particularly high gluten strength and protein content compared to other wheat varieties. This makes it well suited for pasta production. The gluten allows the dough to be stretched and shaped into noodles without breaking apart.
So while the protein composition varies slightly between wheat species, they all contain gluten in amounts that are toxic for those with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.
Celiac Disease and Gluten
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered by consuming gluten. In celiacs, the body mounts an immune response when gluten is present, attacking and damaging the small intestine.
When a person with celiac disease eats gluten, their immune system identifies it as a foreign invader and releases antibodies such as tissue transglutaminase (tTG). These antibodies inflame and damage the villi lining the small intestine.
Villi are tiny, finger-like projections that absorb nutrients from food. When they are flattened due to inflammation, the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients.
This immune reaction and intestinal damage causes symptoms like:
- Abdominal pain
- Unintended weight loss
- Skin rash
Over time, celiac disease can lead to complications like nutritional deficiencies, osteoporosis, infertility and neurological issues if left untreated.
The only treatment for celiac disease is strictly following a gluten-free diet. This means avoiding all sources of gluten including wheat, rye, barley and contaminated oats.
Why Celiacs Must Avoid Durum Wheat
While durum wheat lends itself well to pasta making, it contains gluten proteins that trigger an immune reaction in those with celiac disease.
Several studies have analyzed the gluten content of durum wheat and its suitability for a gluten-free diet:
- One study found that durum wheat contains over 50% gluten, making it unsuitable for celiacs.
- Another study detected high levels of gluten-related amino acids in durum wheat pasta.
- Research shows modern durum wheat cultivars still induce an immune mediated response and intestinal damage in those with celiac disease.
This evidence clearly demonstrates that durum wheat contains gluten proteins like gliadin that are toxic for celiacs.
After consuming durum wheat, celiac patients exhibit:
- Increased levels of antibodies like tTG
- Inflammatory chemicals linked to intestinal damage
- Reduced absorption and nutritional deficiencies
- GI symptoms like diarrhea and bloating
Therefore, all forms of durum wheat should be strictly avoided by those diagnosed with celiac disease or confirmed gluten intolerance.
What About Sprouted Durum Wheat?
Some producers are now selling sprouted durum wheat and products made from sprouted durum wheat flour.
Sprouting is a process where grains begin to germinate, altering their nutritional profile and converting some starches into sugars.
However, sprouting does NOT eliminate gluten from durum wheat. Studies show that sprouted durum wheat still contains considerable levels of immunotoxic gluten proteins:
- Both gliadin and glutenin proteins are still present in sprouted durum wheat.
- Sprouting durum wheat does not break down or deactivate gluten.
- The gluten proteins in sprouted durum wheat can still trigger an autoimmune reaction in celiacs.
Additionally, products labeled as “sprouted wheat” are often contaminated with conventional durum wheat during growing, harvesting and processing.
So sprouted durum wheat should also be avoided by those adhering to a strict gluten-free diet. More research is needed to determine if some individuals with gluten sensitivity (but not celiac disease) can tolerate sprouted durum in small amounts.
Should Gluten Sensitive Individuals Avoid Durum Wheat?
Along with celiac disease, some people have non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or intolerance. Symptoms include digestive issues, headaches, fatigue and joint pain after consuming gluten.
There is on-going debate within the medical community around non-celiac gluten sensitivity – whether it’s a discrete medical condition or overlapping with other gastrointestinal disorders.
However, many individuals report feeling significantly better on a gluten-free diet. Clinical studies have also demonstrated intestinal and systemic immune activation after ingesting gluten in those with gluten sensitivity.
For these individuals, avoiding conventional durum wheat may be beneficial. But the response varies on an individual basis. Some find they can tolerate ancient variants like kamut or small amounts of sprouted durum.
Of course, anyone with suspected gluten intolerance should be tested for celiac disease before trialling gluten containing grains like durum wheat. Durham wheat should be strictly avoided in confirmed celiacs – even small amounts can perpetuate immune damage.
Durum wheat should be strictly avoided by those with celiac disease or confirmed gluten intolerance. It contains immunotoxic gluten proteins that can trigger severe intestinal damage and symptoms in celiacs.
Sprouted forms of durum wheat still retain gluten content and the potential to stimulate an autoimmune reaction in sensitive individuals. More studies are needed on ancient durum wheat varieties which show some differences in gluten composition.
Those adhering to a gluten-free diet for medical reasons should be cautious of any product containing conventional durum wheat or unspecified wheat. Check all labels carefully and contact manufacturers directly if sourcing is unclear. Cross-contamination with gluten is also a concern during processing.
For celiacs, trace amounts of gluten can have serious long-term consequences. So durum wheat is not considered safe or suitable for the gluten-free diet required to manage celiac disease.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is durum wheat bad for you?
Durum wheat is not inherently bad or unhealthy. However, it contains gluten and should be avoided by those with celiac disease or gluten intolerance. For everyone else, durum wheat can be enjoyed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Is durum wheat different than regular wheat?
Yes, durum wheat is a different species of wheat than common bread wheat. It has a higher protein and gluten content, giving it a dense, chewy texture. Durum wheat is most commonly used to make pasta, while bread wheat is better for baking. But they both contain gluten.
Can you substitute durum wheat for regular wheat?
In most recipes, durum and regular wheat are not interchangeable. Durum wheat flour does not work well in bread or baked goods – it lacks the elasticity needed to trap air bubbles. Substituting durum wheat in recipes formulated for regular wheat generally gives poor results.
Is semolina the same as durum wheat?
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat. So semolina is made from durum wheat and shares the same gluten content. Many pastas and cereals contain semolina made from durum wheat.
Is whole grain durum wheat healthy?
Whole grain durum wheat contains more vitamins, minerals and fiber compared to refined durum wheat. But it still contains gluten and is not suitable for celiacs or anyone following a medically-required gluten free diet. Those without gluten concerns can enjoy whole grain durum wheat pasta and flour in moderation as part of a healthy diet.
Can you make homemade pasta with durum wheat?
Yes, durum wheat is ideal for making pasta at home. Durum semolina flour gives pasta the classic chewy, al dente texture. Combine 100% durum flour with eggs and water to create a firm pasta dough. For those avoiding gluten, homemade pasta can be made from other grains like rice, quinoa or buckwheat.
Does durum wheat have less gluten than common wheat?
No, durum wheat does not have less gluten than other wheat varieties. In fact, it typically has an even higher gluten content, around 13-16% protein. All forms of wheat contain gluten and are unsuitable for celiacs and those on a medically gluten-free diet.
Is durum wheat allergy the same as a wheat allergy?
Yes, durum wheat allergy involves the same immunoglobin antibodies and symptoms as regular wheat allergy. This includes hives, respiratory distress, and anaphylaxis in severe cases. Those diagnosed with a wheat allergy must avoid all forms of wheat, including durum.
Can you make sourdough bread with durum flour?
It’s challenging to make a good sourdough bread using 100% durum wheat flour. Durum has different protein content and water absorption than typical bread flour. Some bakers use small amounts of durum flour in sourdough recipes, but bread flour works best as the base.
Is whole durum wheat better than white durum wheat?
Whole durum wheat provides more fiber, vitamins and minerals compared to refined white durum flour. However, any form of durum contains gluten and should be avoided on a gluten-free diet. Those without celiac concerns can enjoy whole durum products for the nutritional benefits.
Does sprouted durum wheat have gluten?
Yes, sprouted durum wheat still contains gluten. Sprouting grains causes chemical changes but does not eliminate or deactivate gluten. Celiacs and those avoiding gluten for medical reasons should be cautious of sprouted durum wheat as it can still cause issues.
Can you use durum flour instead of all purpose flour?
Substituting durum flour in recipes calling for all-purpose flour typically does not yield good results. Durum flour is more dense and absorbs liquid differently. All-purpose flour has lower protein content and more elasticity to allow rising. Either flour can be used for dusting surfaces or thickening stews when needed.
Is durum wheat healthy for weight loss?
Durum wheat can be included as part of a healthy weight loss diet. Products made with whole grain durum wheat provide more vitamins, minerals and fiber to support satiety and overall health compared to refined grains. Just be sure to consume durum wheat and products in moderation for balanced nutrition.
Does homemade durum pasta taste better?
Many people prefer the flavor and texture of homemade fresh pasta made with durum wheat. The pasta has a wonderfully chewy, bouncy bite. And the taste can be enhanced by added ingredients like herbs, spices or vegetables blended into the dough. Use high quality durum semolina for best results.
What nutrients are in durum wheat?
Durum wheat provides carbohydrates, fiber, protein, B vitamins, iron, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese. Whole grain durum products have a higher micronutrient profile than refined durum flour and pasta. But those with celiac disease or gluten intolerance should consume other gluten-free whole grains.
The Bottom Line
Durum wheat contains gluten and should be strictly avoided by those with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. While nutritious for the general population, durum wheat can trigger severe damage to the intestines and other symptoms in gluten intolerant individuals. Those on a medically gluten-free diet should be cautious of any products listing durum wheat as an ingredient and always thoroughly check food labels. When in doubt, choose naturally gluten-free whole grains instead for a healthy diet.