Are javelina safe to eat?

Javelina, also known as collared peccaries, are pig-like mammals found in the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America. While they may look like wild boars, they are actually a different species. Javelina meat has historically been consumed by Native Americans and early settlers, but is it safe to eat?

Quick Answer

Yes, javelina meat is generally considered safe to eat as long as proper food safety guidelines are followed. Javelina are not true pigs, so they do not carry the same diseases. However, caution should still be exercised when handling and preparing javelina meat.

Nutritional Value of Javelina Meat

Javelina meat is quite lean and contains high levels of protein. A 3.5 oz (100 gram) serving contains approximately:

  • Calories: 122
  • Protein: 21 grams
  • Fat: 3 grams

Javelina meat also contains important vitamins and minerals like iron, zinc, vitamin B12 and niacin. Overall, it can be a healthy source of protein if consumed in moderation.

Is Javelina Meat Safe to Eat?

Javelina belong to a different biological family than domestic pigs and wild boars, so they do not carry the same infectious diseases like trichinosis or swine brucellosis. However, some precautions should still be taken when handling and preparing javelina meat:

  • Wear protective gloves when field dressing javelina and wash hands thoroughly afterwards.
  • Cook meat thoroughly to an internal temperature of 165°F to kill any bacteria or parasites.
  • Avoid eating organs like the liver as they can concentrate toxins.
  • If meat smells bad or has a slimy texture, discard it.

Provided these food safety guidelines are followed, most experts agree the risk of becoming sick from eating properly prepared javelina meat is very low.

Taste and Texture of Javelina Meat

Javelina meat is typically described as being similar to pork in flavor, perhaps being slightly stronger or gamier. The meat is firm and lean.

When cooked, javelina can be substituted for pork in many recipes like sausages, stews, chili, or simply grilled. Roasts and steaks are other good options. Marinades can help tenderize tougher cuts of meat from older animals.

Hunting Regulations for Javelina

Javelina hunting is regulated by state wildlife agencies with defined seasons and bag limits. Some key regulations include:

State Season Bag Limit
Arizona Year-round (limited permits in some areas) 2 per year
New Mexico August – February 1 per day, 3 per season
Texas Year-round 2 per day, 4 per season

Be sure to check current regulations before hunting javelina. A license is required and only legal firearms and archery equipment may be used.

Population Status of Javelina

Javelina are not currently considered threatened or endangered. Their population trends are stable in the southwestern U.S. Some key facts about javelina populations:

  • Around 200,000-300,000 javelina are estimated to live in Arizona.
  • Over 500,000 javelina are found in Texas.
  • Javelina are considered a game species with managed hunting seasons.
  • Loss of habitat is the biggest threat to javelina populations.

Limited, regulated hunting of javelina is considered sustainable and does not significantly impact their populations. Their meat and hides are put to good use.


Javelina meat is a tasty and lean protein source that is typically safe to eat when properly handled and prepared. Legally-hunted javelina provide a sustainable source of meat as their populations remain stable in the southwestern U.S. Following basic food safety guidelines allows javelina meat to be enjoyed with minimal risk.

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